World Geography


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world geography
  Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries invarious parts of the world (including India)There are three places you can setup an industry 1.   near raw material site2.   near market3.   In between these two: depending on transport, energy and labor convenience. Factors influencing location of industries- 1.   Nature of raw material2.   Energy3.   Transport4.   Labor5.   Market demand6.   Government policy7.   Capital8.   Physical Geography Other factors: entrepreneurship, availability of technology, location of competing firms etc.Each factor has different level of attractiveness for individual industry. Types of industries1.   Primary- They use natural raw material: Hunting-gathering, pastoral activities, fishing,forestry, agriculture, mining and quarrying  2.   Secondary- They make complex products using the material obtained from primaryindustry.  Secondary Industry can be sub classified into- Heavy Industries and Light Industries 3.   Tertiary- It is not a branch of manufacturing but it sells the product of primary andsecondary industries via transport, wholesale, retailing + provides services such as:tourism, education, entertainment, advertisements, consultancy, Administration,healthcare etc.   Timber Based industries  1.   Factor: raw material- When this wooden logs are processed in the sawmill, significantweight loss occurs. Barely 40% is used and rest discarded as waste. Therefore most pulpmill and saw-mills are located near the jungles to reduce the cost of transporting wastematter.  2.   Factor: River- Even in jungles, they’re located near rivers and streams because Logs=bulky and awkward to transport. Rivers provide cheap and convenient mode of transport. The paper/pulp mills require clean water free from chemical/pollutants. Thisis one the reason why they were setup in forest locations away from polluted rivers.  3.   Factor: River directiontowards market away from market    Southern Canada, Sweden, Finland,HimalayasUS West Coast, Siberia    rivers flow in general direction of finalmarket=keeps production, transportcost low    Rivers flow in the opposite directionfrom market areas=higher transportcost.    in Russia, rivers remain frozen inwinter and create flood like problemsin spring time Lumbering on commercial scale:Canada- In Canada, lumbering is a large-scale organized activity because of following reasons-1.   Raw Material- softwood= easy to chop. In coniferous forest, trees of samespecies are concentrated in one particular area = mass exploitation easiercompared to tropical areas.2.   Transport- During winter, the Jungle surface is covered with snow= slipperysurface= easier to move logs to rivers. The forests are comparatively less densethan in tropical areas= easy to access. Areas connected by railroads.3.   Labor- The winter season in Canada is long = agricultural activities are limited.Farmers have plenty of leisure time and there is no work in the field duringwinter. During winter, they migrate to northern (coniferous) forests along withtheir families => Easy availability of lumberjacks. Lumbering is highly mechanizedwith the help of chainsaws, bulldozers etc = low population- density doesn’t create much problem.4.   Market- These forests are close to economically developed regions, wheredemand for wood is higher e.g. USA for newsprint paper. Canada is one of the largest newsprint producer of the world. Its Québec and Ontarioprovinces= largest concentration of paper-pulp industries, Why?1.   Raw Material- Forest area is large enough to supply timber on a constant basis.    2.   Transport- Ideal location for mill= riverside. It minimizes transportation problems.  3.   Energy- one ton of newsprint may require 2000 kW hours of electricity. Canada hasmountainous terrain + fast flowing rivers= Cheap hydroelectric Power available.  4.   Labor- Paper and pulp mills are highly mechanized and require little manpower. Theycan be located in remote regions with an without experiencing labor shortage.  5.   Market- USA has highest paper consumption in the world, provides a ready-mademarket for the paper pulp industry of Canada.  Britain-1.   Raw material- Its timber output is negligible but still a major paper-producer thanks topulp-imports from Sweden and Canada.  2.   Transport- Mills located @coastal areas, to process imported material (=less transportcost) Example Mill near Thames estuary, Manchester Ship canal.  Norway, Sweden, Finland- Factors more or less the same:1.   cheap hydro electrical power,2.   mechanized operations to make do for lack of laborers,3.   Rivers flow towards ports=easy for transport. South East Asia-1.   Malaysia, Philippines- Forests found on islands/peninsulas @no point very distancefrom sea, Hence can be extracted easily. hardwood much in demand by Australia andJapan.  2.   Myanmar, Thailand- Best wood found inland, has to be transported through riverstowards coast.  India-1.   Near Raw Material- Dependent on bamboo, softwood. E.g. South Gujarat, Odisha, MP  2.   Near Market- Kolkata: raw material brought from North Eastern States, cheap labor,coal, water available.   Lucknow: Depend on bagasse (from sugarmills), rags, wheat bran. Sabai grass broughtfrom Terrai region. Commercial fishing- Why is commercial fishing developed in middle to higher latitudes of Northern hemisphere?  1.   Plankton availability- Fishes eat plankton. Phytoplankton require sunlight = theycan develop well in continental shelves and shallow seas because of Sunlightpenetration and minerals from coastal water. Planktons reproduce more incooler waters   2.   Ocean Currents- When cold and hot current meet=lot of planktons=lot of fishes. warm cold fishermen of ____ benefit gulf stream labrador US+ Canada (North Western Atlantic coast)Kuroshio Oyashio Honshu, Japan 3.   Coastline- Highly indented coastline=many sites for harbors and ports.4.   Climate- The cool temperate climate favors large scale commercial fishing,preservation and storage of fish. While tropical areas= hot, moist = fish cannotbe stored for long.5.   Equipment- In the medieval times, temperate forests provided following- Bothsoft and hard wood for construction of fishing boats. Naval stores (Raisin, pitch,tar and turpentine). They are derived from resinous materials from coniferoustrees, were used to make wooden vessels watertight. Today, commercial fishing vessels don’t need any of above, but ste el and heavy engineering industry alsodeveloped in surround the coastal regions (e.g. Great lakes-Pittsburg)=shipbuilding industry. 6.   Labor- hilly terrain = less cultivable areas. Cold long winters= not good foragriculture= more people switch to fishing. Eg. Iceland, Japan, Norway.  7.   Market- In the mountainous regions of Asia and Europe, agricultural productionis quite low =Fish important source of protein. Example Japan and Norway. Asia=fish + rice= main diet of many were Asian countries. (because Fish is cheaperthan meat). When Europeans started migrating to North America, most of theearly urban settlements were on or near the Eastern coast = ready market forselling fish products. During weekly fast of Catholics, fish must be eaten insteadof meat. Before electricity/petroleum, whale oil was the chief source of fuel andlubricant. In developed countries, fishes even used as animal food, fertilizers,Medical uses of cod liver oil, demand for fur products (walrus, seals) and so on.   Fish gutting = significant weight loss. Hence fish processing is either done on the vessel or nearthe coastal plants. location prominent fishing area
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