Abbreviations and Letter Symbols - Cap 9

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9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 9.1. Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases. The nature of the publication governs the extent to which abbreviations are used. In the text of technical and legal publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words are frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, and indexes follow the style
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  221 9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 9.1. Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoiddistracting the reader by use o repetitious words or phrases. 9.2. Te nature o the publication governs the extent to which abbrevia-tions are used. In the text o technical and legal publications, and inparentheses, brackets, ootnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, andbibliographies, many words are requently abbreviated. Heads, leg-ends, tables o contents, and indexes ollow the style o the text. 9.3. Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols represening unitso measure are to be omitted to conorm with practice adopted by scientifc, technical, and industrial groups. Where the omission o terminal punctuation causes conusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch)mistaken or the preposition in , the symbol should be spelled out. 9.4. Standard and easily understood orms are preerable, and they should be uniorm throughout a job. Abbreviations not generally known should be ollowed in the text by the spelled-out orms inparentheses the frst time they occur; in tables and leaderwork suchexplanatory matter should be supplied in a ootnote. As the printercannot rewrite the copy, the author should supply these explanatory orms. 9.5. In technical matter, symbols or units o measure should be usedonly with fgures; similarly, many other abbreviations and symbolsshould not appear in isolation. For example, energy is measured in oot-pounds, NO energy is measured in fãlbs. Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing 9.6. In general, an abbreviation ollows the capitalization and hyphen-ation o the word or words abbreviated. It is ollowed by a periodunless otherwise indicated. c.o.d. St. but  ãlb  222 Chapter 9 9.7. Abbvas ad as  a psa am wh ps a swh spas. Abbvas mpsd  as ad -as  mbs, w a spa.   H.S.. B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.S.J.F.K. H.R. 116 ( but  S. 116, S. C.L.B.J. Rs. 116)U.S. C.A.D.C. ( but  App. D.C.)U.N. A.B. Ss, D.D.S.U.S.C. ( but  Rv. Sa.)A.F.  L.-CIO (AFL–CIOpd) but  A.D., B.C. A&.s.. xas A&M.., .. ( but  p. .) R&D 9.8. Exp as hws dsad, ps ad spas a mda as sd as shd ams  vma asad  h azd bds. “Oh azd bds” sha bpd  ma azd bds ha hav bm ppay dfd wh a symb, sh as MI (Massahss Is hy), GM (Ga Ms), GMAC (Ga MsApa Cp.), . (S “Ls  Abbvas.”) Symbs, whhy appa  py, may b sd  as  Css. Examp:ARA (Aa Rdvpm A). VFW VA ARCNLRB AFL–CIO ASM Geographic terms 9.9.   United States ms b spd  wh appa  a sa h am  ah y. T abbva U.S. w b sd wh pd h wd Government   h am a Gvm aza, xp  ma w (as,Exv ds, pamas, .); ssa bs; a a-s ad wk; ad vs ad  pas. U.S. GvmU.S. CssU.S. Dpam  Hah ad Hma SvsU.S. ds U.S. Spm C ( but  Spm C  h Ud Sas)U.S. Amy ( but  Amy  h Ud Sas)   Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 223 U.S. monitor Nantucket  U.S.-NAO assistanceU.S. Government eorts to control inlation must be successul i theUnited States is to have a stable economy. but  British, French, and United States Governments; United States-Britishtalks 9.10. With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the abbreviation U.S.  is used in the adjective position, but is spelled out when used as anoun. U.S. oreign policy United States Steel Corp.U.S. arm-support program (legal title)U.S. attorney Foreign policy o theU.S. citizen United StatesUnited States Code (o cial title) not  emperatures vary in the U.S. 9.11. Te names o oreign countries are not abbreviated, with the excep-tion o the ormer U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated due to its length. 9.12. In other than ormal usage as defned in rule 9.9, all States o theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are abbreviatedimmediately ollowing any capitalized geographic term, includ-ing armory, arsenal, airbase, airport, barracks, depot, ort, Indianagency, military camp, national cemetery (also orest, historic site,memorial, seashore, monument, park), naval shipyard, provingground, reservation (orest, Indian, or military), and reserve or sta-tion (military or naval). Prince George’s County, MD Arlington National Cemetery, VAMount Rainier National Forest, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MDWA Baltimore-WashingtonStone Mountain, GA International Airport, MDNational Naval Medical Center, Redstone Arsenal, ALBethesda, MDMark wain National Wildlie but  Reuge, IL-IA-MO (note use o Leavenworth reight yards,hyphens here) KansasRichmond, VA Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin 9.13. Te Postal Service style o two-letter State, Province, and reely associated State abbreviations is to be used.  224 Chapter 9 United States [Including freely associated States] Aabama ........................................ALAaska ...........................................AKAma Sama ........................ASAza .........................................AZAkasas .......................................ARCaa .....................................CACad .....................................COC .................................CDawa .......................................DEDs  Cmba .................DCFdad Sas  Msa ..............................FMFda ...........................................FLGa .........................................GAGam ............................................GUHawa ............................................HIIdah ...............................................IDIs .............................................ILIdaa ...........................................INIwa.................................................IAKasas ...........................................KSKky .......................................KYLsaa ......................................LAMa............................................MEMasha Isads .......................MHMayad ....................................MDMassahss ...........................MAMha.......................................MIMsa ..................................MNMsssspp ....................................MSMss ......................................MOMaa.......................................MNbaska .......................................NENvada .........................................NVNw Hampsh .........................NHNw Jsy .....................................NJNw Mx ...............................NMNw Yk .....................................NYNh Caa ...........................NCNh Daka .............................NDNh MaaaIsads ......................................MPOh ..............................................OHOkahma ....................................OKO ..........................................ORPaa .............................................PWPsyvaa ................................PAP R ..................................PRRhd Isad .................................RISh Caa .............................SCSh Daka ...............................SDss.....................................Nxas ..............................................XUah ...............................................UVm ........................................VV Isads ...............................VIVa .........................................VAWash .................................WAWs Va.............................WVWss .....................................WIWym ....................................WY Canada Aba ..........................................ABBsh Cmba ........................BCMaba .....................................MBNw Bswk ...........................NBNwdad ad Labad ...NLNhws s ...............NNva Sa ..................................NSNav .......................................NUOa .........................................ONP Edwad Isad .................PEQb .........................................QCSaskahwa ...............................SKYk ............................................Y 9.14. T ams  h sa psssss, s s, ad Long Island, Staten Island, ., a  abbvad. 9.15. T ams  Caada Pvs ad h  pa sbd- vss a  abbvad xp as d   9.1.  Addresses 9.16. Wds sh as Street,    Avenue, Place, Road, Square, Boulevard,Terrace, Drive, Court, ad Building  , w a am  mb,a abbvad  s, sds, abs, adwk, adss. 9.17. I addsss, a s pd s sd wh h abbvas NW.,SW., NE., SE. (da sa dvss  s) wam  mb. North, South, East, ad West  a spd  a ams.
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