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{Answer|Remedy|Option} Manual for International Business Competing in the Global Marketplace 10th Edition by Hill Instant download {Answer|Remedy|Option} Manual for International Business Competing ian the Global Marketplace 10th Edition by Hill CLICK LINK BELLOW TO VIEW SAMPLE CHAPTER Product description {Information about|Specifics about|Information regarding} International Business: Market-defining since it was introduced, {World|Essential|Cosmopolitan} Business Competing in the Global Marketplace by Charles W. L. Hill, {units|models|pieces} the standard. Hill {pulls|attracts|takes in} {after} his experience to deliver {an entire|a whole|a total} solution-print and digital? for instructors & students {when you are|because they are|if it is}: Integrated - Progression of Topics {Software|Program|App} Rich - Strong on Strategy Current - {Believed|Assumed|Imagined} Provoking Relevant - {Real|Genuine} Practice of International BusinessSample questions asked in the 10th edition of {World|Essential|Cosmopolitan} Business: Drawing {after} {Steve|David|Ruben} Rawls's {idea of|notion of} the veil of ignorance, develop an ethical code that will ( a ) guide the decisions of {a huge|a sizable} oil multinational toward environmental protection, and ( {w|m|n} ) influence the {guidelines|plans|procedures} of a clothing company to outsourcing of {developing|making|processing} process. In the {eighties|nineteen eighties} {a better|a more robust} dollar hurt Caterpillar's competitive position, but in 2008 {a better|a more robust} dollar {do|performed|would} not {seem to be} to have the same effect. What had changed? You are the CFO {of the|of any|of your} Circumstance. S. firm whose {totally|entirely} owned subsidiary in South america manufactures component parts for your U. S. {set up|assemblage} operations. The subsidiary has been financed by {lender|standard bank|loan company} borrowings in the {Usa|Combined|Unified} States. Your analysts {informed|advised} you that the Philippine peso is expected to depreciate by 30 percent against the dollar on the foreign exchange {marketplaces|market segments} over the next {12 months|yr|season}. What actions, if any, should you take? {Quick|Fast|Prompt} download Solution Manual for International Business Competing ian the Global Marketplace tenth Edition pdf Link download full:
  • 1. Chapter 02 – National Differences in Political Economy 2-1 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Link full download: solution- manual-for-international-business-competing-ian-the- global-marketplace-10th-edition-by-hill National Differences in Political Economy Learning objectives  Understand how the political systems of countries differ.  Understand how the economic systems of countries differ.  Understand how the legal systems of countries differ.  Explain the implications for management practice of national differences in political economy. This chapter discusses differences in national political, economic, and legal systems, highlighting the ways in which managers in global settings need to be sensitive to these differences. Political differences are described along two dimensions: collectivist vs. individualist and democratic vs. totalitarian. Economic systems are explored in terms of market characteristics: market economies, command economies, and mixed economies. Legal systems are discussed in terms of the protections they offer for business: intellectual property, product safety, liability and contracts. The opening case describes the economic growth in the East African nation of Ghana over the last decade. In 2011, Ghana became Africa’s newest middle-income nation, thanks to the global demand for two of its major exports—gold and cocoa—as 2
  • 2. Chapter 02 – National Differences in Political Economy 2-2 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. well as the recent start-up of oil production in the country. The closing case explores the reasons why Poland has experienced strong economic growth during the recent global recession while the rest of the world has struggled.
  • 3. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-3 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. OUTLINE OF CHAPTER 2: NATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN POLITICAL ECONOMY Opening Case: Ghana: An African Dynamo Introduction Political Systems Collectivism and Individualism Democracy and Totalitarianism Country Focus: Venezuela under Hugo Chávez, 1999–2013 Economic Systems Market Economy Command Economy Mixed Economy Legal Systems Different Legal Systems Differences in Contract Law Property Rights and Corruption The Protection of Intellectual Property Product Safety and Product Liability Country Focus: Corruption in Nigeria Management Focus: Did Walmart Violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act? Management Focus: Starbucks Wins Key Trademark Case in China Implications for Managers Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions Closing Case: Poland’s Economy
  • 4. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-4 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. CLASSROOM DISCUSSION POINT Ask students to think about the two dimensions used to describe political systems: Collectivist-Individualist and Democratic-Totalitarian. Begin by drawing the following scale on the board: ______________________________________________________ Individualist Collectivist ______________________________________________________ Democratic Totalitarian Then ask students to provide some examples of what might describe a collectivist system —where does Canada’s national healthcare system put it, which countries might be considered democratic, where should China be placed, and so on. Finally, move to a discussion of how differences in political economy present both opportunities and threats for business. Managers must analyze each national market that they participate in and identify specific ways in which the political economy of that nation could support or threaten the company’s business model. If there are foreign students in the class or students with foreign experience, you might draw on their observations of differences these dimensions impose on the practice of business. OPENING CASE: Ghana: An African Dynamo Summary The East African nation of Ghana has emerged as one of the fastest-growing countries in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade, becoming the continent’s newest middle-income nation. Driving this growth has been the strong demand for two of the country’s major exports—gold and cocoa—as well as the start of oil production in recent years. Overcoming military coups and corruption, the country’s recent leaders have embraced a stable political environment, which has helped drive the country’s economic success and dramatically reduce widespread governmental corruption. Discussion of the case can revolve around the following questions: 1. How did the political and economic policies implemented over the last 20 years help Ghana prosper? What does this mean for existing and potential investors in the country? 2. How important is the privatization of state-owned enterprises to the country’s booming economy?
  • 5. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-5 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 3. What does Ghana need to do to ensure that it continues to prosper? What steps should the country take to make it a more attractive destination for investment and economic partnerships? Another Perspective: With sustain economic success and political stability, Ghana will need to continue its efforts to increase educational opportunities for its citizens. To learn more go to {} LECTURE OUTLINE This lecture outline follows the Power Point Presentation (PPT) provided along with this instructor’s manual. The PPT slides include additional notes that can be viewed by clicking on “view,” then on “notes.” The following provides a brief overview of each Power Point slide along with teaching tips, and additional perspectives. Slides 2-3 and 2-4 Political Economy The political, economic, and legal infrastructure of a nation has a major influence on the way managers make decisions. Political systems have two dimensions: the degree of collectivism versus individualism, and the degree of democracy versus totalitarianism. These dimensions are interrelated; systems that emphasize collectivism tend towards totalitarianism, while systems that place a high value on individualism tend to be democratic. However, a large gray area exists in the middle. It is possible to have democratic societies that emphasize a mix of collectivism and individualism. Similarly, it is possible to have totalitarian societies that are not collectivist. Slides 2-5 through 2-7 Collectivism and Individualism Collectivism refers to a political system that stresses the primacy of collective goals over individual goals. Advocacy of collectivism can be traced to the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. In modern times the collectivist system is largely the domain of nations that have embraced socialism. Individualism is the direct opposite of collectivism. Its central tenet is that individual economic and political freedoms are the ground rules on which society is based. Slides 2-8- through 2-10 Democracy and Totalitarianism Democracy, as originally practiced by several city-states in ancient Greece, is based on a belief that citizens should be directly involved in decision making. Most modern democratic states practice representative democracy in which citizens periodically elect individuals to represent them. Totalitarianism is a form of government in which one person or political party exercises absolute control over all spheres of human life and opposing political parties are prohibited (Communist, theocratic, tribal, right wing).
  • 6. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-6 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Totalitarianism denies its citizens all of the constitutional guarantees asserted by representative democracies. Slide 2-11 through 2-14 Economic Systems There is a connection between political ideology and economic systems. In countries where individual goals are given primacy over collective goals, we are more likely to find free market economic systems. In contrast, in countries where collective goals are given preeminence, the state may have taken control over many enterprises, while markets in such countries are likely to be restricted rather than free. There are three broad types of economic systems: the market economy, the command economy, and the mixed economy. A market economy is an economy in which all productive activities are privately owned, as opposed to being owned by the state. Production is determined by the interaction of supply and demand and signaled to producers through the price system. A command economy is an economy in which the goods and services that a country produces, the quantity in which they are produced, and the prices at which they are sold are all planned by the government. A mixed economy is an economy in which certain sectors of the economy are left to private ownership and free market mechanisms while other sectors have significant state ownership and government planning. India has a mixed economy. Mixed economies were once very common throughout much of the world, although they are becoming much less so. There was a time not too long ago when Great Britain, France, and Sweden were mixed economies, but extensive privatization has reduced state ownership of businesses in all three. Slide 2-15 and 2-16 Legal Systems Legal systems are the systems of rules or laws that regulate behavior along with the processes by which the laws are enforced and through which redress for grievances is obtained. There are three main types of legal systems – or legal traditions – in use around the world: common law, civil law, and theocratic law. Common law is based on tradition, precedent, and custom. Civil law is based on a very detailed set of laws organized into codes. Theocratic law is based on religious teachings. Slides 2-17 and 2-18 Contract Law A contract is a document that specifies the conditions under which an exchange is to occur and details the rights and obligations of the parties involved. Contract law is the body of law that governs contract enforcement.
  • 7. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-7 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Since common law tends to be relatively ill specified, contracts drafted under a common law framework tend to be very detailed with all contingencies spelled out. In civil law systems, contracts tend to be much shorter and less specific because many of the issues typically covered in a common law contract are already covered in a civil code. When contract disputes arise in international trade, there is always the question of which country’s laws apply. Many countries including the United States have ratified the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CIGS). The CIGS establishes a uniform set of rules governing certain aspects of the making and performance of everyday commercial contracts between sellers and buyers who have their places of business in different nations. Another Perspective: The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law provides a detailed overview of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods at {}. Slides 2-19 through 2-22 Property Rights Property rights refer to a resource over which an individual or business holds a legal title; that is, a resource that they own. These rights can be violated through private or public action. Private action refers to theft, piracy, blackmail, and the like by private individuals or groups. Public action violations occur when public officials, such as politicians and government bureaucrats, extort income or resources from property holders. Another Perspective: The U.S government’s web page on intellectual property rights, {}, contains a wealth of information on intellectual property rights including information on international intellectual property rights treaties and protecting trademarks. In the United States the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act makes bribing a foreign government official in order to obtain or maintain business over which that foreign official has authority a violation of United States law, and requires all publicly traded companies to keep audit records. Slides 2-23 and 2-24 Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual property is property that is the product of intellectual activity, such as computer software, a screenplay, a music score, or the chemical formula for a new drug. Ownership rights over intellectual property are established through patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
  • 8. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-8 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Another Perspective: The World Intellectual Property Organization’s web site contains extensive information on various treaties and agreements between countries regarding the protection of intellectual property. The site is {}. Another Perspective: The World Intellectual Property Organization offers suggestion on how exporters can avoid common pitfalls when exporting intellectual property. More details can be found at {}. Slides 2-25 and 2-26 Product Safety and Liability Product safety laws set safety standards for products and manufacturing processes. Product liability involves holding a firm and its officers responsible for product safety standards. Slide 2-27 Determining a Market’s Overall Attractiveness All else being equal, countries with democratic political institutions, market-based economies, and legal systems that protect property rights and limit corruption will be more attractive than nations that lack these characteristics. CRITICAL THINKING AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: Free market economies stimulate greater economic growth, whereas state-directed economies stifle growth. Discuss. ANSWER 1: In a market economy, private individuals and corporations are allowed to own property and other assets. This right of ownership provides a powerful incentive for people to work hard, introduce new products, develop better advertising campaigns, invent new products, etc., all in the hopes of accumulating additional personal capital and wealth. In turn, the constant search on the part of individuals and corporation to accumulate wealth enriches the entire economy and creates economic growth. In contrast, in a command economy, private individuals and corporations are not allowed to own substantial quantities of property and other assets. The objective of a command economy is for everyone to work for “the good of the society.” Although this sounds like a noble ideal, a system that asks individuals to work for the good of society rather than allowing individuals to build personal wealth does not provide a great incentive for people to invent new products, develop better advertising campaigns, find ways to be more efficient, etc. As a result, command economies typically generate less innovation and are less efficient than market economies.
  • 9. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-9 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. QUESTION 2: A democratic political system is an essential condition for sustained economic progress. Discuss. ANSWER 2: Although you can always find examples of totalitarian regimes that have achieved rapid economic growth, it seems fair to say that sustained, decades-long periods of economic growth are quite rare under totalitarianism. There is a widespread belief in the West that democratic principles are more conducive to long-term economic growth than are totalitarian ones. One of the contributing factors is that democratic systems allow for the stable transfer of power through elections, and thus provide political stability, which is an essential prerequisite for rapid economic growth. QUESTION 3: What is the relationship between corruption in a country (i.e., bribe- taking by government officials) and economic growth? Is corruption always bad? ANSWER 3: In the United States we show public contempt for the practice of bribery although evidence suggests that bribery is not uncommon in the United States. When government officials engage in corruption, they subordinate the interest of their country to their personal gain. They also reduce the level of transparency in business interactions. Many nations with rampant bribery appear to be among the most economically underdeveloped, yet the inflexible generalization that corruption is always bad oversimplifies the role of culture and its influence on meaning-giving. There are many cultures that accept the role of bribes far more openly than we do in the United States. That managers are aware that some countries – France, Germany and Japan for example – recognize that bribes play an important role in some parts of the world and allow their corporations to expense bribes (deduct bribes as a legal corporate expense) is important. QUESTION 4: You are the CEO of a company that has to choose between making a $100 million investment in Russia or Poland. Both investments promise the same long- run return, so your choice is driven by risk considerations. Assess the various risks of doing business in each of these nations. Which investment would you favor and why? ANSWER 4: When assessing the risks of investment, one should consider the political, economic, and legal risks of doing business in both Russia and Poland. The political risk in Russia is still high but it is undergoing continual governmental changes under Putin’s leadership, and courting foreign investment. Relatively, Poland is more stable, but it may have less potential. On the economic front, both countries have inflation and economic turmoil as unproductive factories are still struggling in Russia, and migrant workers returning from Western Europe are swelling Poland’s ranks of the unemployed. From the legal perspective, Poland is making steady progress, while the situation in Russia is unclear. Thus at this time, the risk in Russia would clearly be higher. (For discussion or to modify this question, you might want to substitute other countries into this question depending on current events and the countries with which your students will be most familiar.)
  • 10. Chapter 02 - National Differences in Political Economy 2-10 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. QUESTION 5: Read the Country Focus on Venezuela under the leadership of Hugo Chávez, then answer the following questions: a. Under Chávez’s leadership, what kind of economic system was put in place in Venezuela? How would you characterize the political system? b. How do you think that Chávez’s unilateral changes to contracts with foreign oil companies will impact upon future investment by for
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