QUESTIONING PROBLEMS OF TERRITORIALITY IN THE PRODUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL SPACE AS BACKSTAGE TOURIST ATTRACTION

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QUESTIONING PROBLEMS OF TERRITORIALITY IN THE PRODUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL SPACE AS BACKSTAGE TOURIST ATTRACTION
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  Arte-Polis 4 Intl Conference - Creative Connectivity and the Making of Place: Living Smart by Design 1   Questioning Problems Of Territoriality. Yunita SETYONINGRUM QUESTIONING PROBLEMS OF TERRITORIALITYIN THE PRODUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL SPACEAS BACKSTAGE TOURIST ATTRACTION Setyoningrum YUNITA LecturerMaranatha Christian UniversityINDONESIA yunita.setyoningrum@gmail.com   ABSTRACT  This article is intended to question territory problems related with the production of backstage tourist attraction in Laweyan residential space. Laweyan has beenrecently developed into a community-based cultural village promoting its batikindustry as the main attraction. Laweyan village socio-cultural and physicalcondition as a batik industry and trade center made significant opportunity for thecommunity to offer valuable mix of tourism attractions, which are into cultural andheritage, handicraft and shopping tourism. Meanwhile, the demand of these kind of tourism is prospectively high, endorsed by the rise of new middle class society andthe new form of tourism consumption, called Post-Fordist. The Post-Fordist neednew different holiday experiences, which is not only leisure-oriented, but alsoexperiences that can give meanings to their life. Therefore tourists begin to searchfor authenticity in their holiday experience.Problem arises in the setting production of the community everyday environment asauthentic tourist attraction, against the locals need of privacy and territoriality. There are several questions being marked in this paper: 1)Does the communityhave to expose their private life as cultural representation in the community to becalled authentic? 2) How important it is to produce authentic attraction inKampung Laweyan as cultural tourist destination? 3) What aspects should beconsider in the production of visual environment to be called authentic? Andfurther, 4) What are the territorial impacts of the situation when their everydaylives were commoditized as spectacles? This article proposes two circumstancesthat appear in the production of space, following Dean MacCannell’s Theory of Staged Authenticity about producing the tourist attraction and Wang definition of objective authenticity: First, there might be production of simulacra in the wherereality is being falsified to represent images of culture or everyday lives; Second,the community might be encountering deterritorialization in their own everydayenvironment that are being exposed to tourists. The data gathered for this research were from literatures and field survey, Keywords: backstage tourism, residential, territoriality, authenticity INTRODUCTION    Tourist Attraction Sites: The Construction of Sign and Representations  Arte-Polis 4 Intl Conference - Creative Connectivity and the Making of Place: Living Smart by Design 2   Questioning Problems Of Territoriality. Yunita SETYONINGRUM  The production and consumption of tourist attraction has been discussed in manyfield of studies around the world, including in Indonesia. Indonesia has been one of favorite destination in South East Asia, but not as the first choice of internationaltourist destination. The exoticness of Indonesian socio-cultural life and heritage,also the natural beauty of its tropical environment had attracted internationaltravellers. In 2008, there is approximately 6.2 million international visitors came toIndonesia. The growth of international visits from 2001-2008 reached 4.4% eachyear (United Nations – World Tourism Organization). Still, there are muchhomework to be done for the government of Indonesia and the society itself.Eventough Indonesia has a lot of spots that could be developed as tourist attraction;many of them need improvements in the strategic planning and maintenances.In the modern world nowadays, tourism travel has been global lifestyle, moreover itbecome culturisation. Tourism has been part of consumer culture. This tendency isexplicitly shown in the progressive development of cultural tourism. Rojek andUrry (2004 : 4) defined that tourism now are marketed as improving the ‘culture’ of the tourist. One does not simply see more of the world by engaging in these formsof tourist activities, but also accepts the invitation to become a better person.Culturisation can also be seen in the increasing significance of signs to the designand marketing of tourism sites, because tourists are consuming signs. Those signsthat tourists consume are actually constructed. Therefore, it is become important toanalyze how the visualization of signs appear, beyond the nature of the tourismobject itself. Shaw & William (2004: 119) also stated that modern tourists aresubjects and also objects of tourist’ gaze. It means by consuming tourismexperiences, people is not only related to tourist self-experience, but also related totheir identity representation in the society 1 ), such as the representation of theirlifestyle, a statement of taste, or a signifier of status. The art of producing and consuming signs in modern tourism then followed withthe commodification of tourism space and its related content. Infact, all modernsocieties now are characterized by commodification, as part of the process of (re)producing their material conditions of existence (Watson and Kopachevsky1994). The next sub-section will discuss the commodification of sign andrepresentation on cultural tourism, that will lead to the main problem of this paperabout authenticity. Backstage Attraction in Cultural Tourist Sites: Authenticity in TheCommodification of Everyday Environment Nowadays, international tourist interest have been shifting from generalised, mass-tourism to individualized, flexible, more specificied, small-group tourism. Thistendency is also called ‘Post-Fordist’ tourism . Post-Fordist tourists not only searchfor pleasure from leisure activities, instead they search for experience to enrich theirlife. They travel to places they consider different from their daily life, to refreshthemselves, then go back to their daily life with new experience and meaning thatwould reflected on their attitude. Therefore, the development of tourist attractionsshould consider the changing tourist habits and preferences. Not to leave mass-tourism sector undeveloped, but it is important to create various setting of touristattractions that could accomodate either mass-tourism and the the new-modetourism. Shaw & Williams had mapped out three types of tourist consumption fortourist site production to accomodate:  Arte-Polis 4 Intl Conference - Creative Connectivity and the Making of Place: Living Smart by Design 3   Questioning Problems Of Territoriality. Yunita SETYONINGRUM •   Fordist or mass consumption, which is characterized by a highlystandardized product, differentiated mainly by stages in the family life-cycle and costs •   Post-Fordist consumption, which is involving the creation of apparentlyindividual, tailor-made holidays, which are comparatively less structuredand more independent, and in which tourists are offered highlydifferentiated products, with more choice •   McDonaldization of tourism consumption, which is characterized by aform of mass customization, presenting to tourists flexible products, basedon efficient and calculable holidays(Shaw & Williams, 2004: 133) The new-mode of tourism, accomodating Post-Fordist tourists, somehow createdsome changes in the trend of producing tourism sites and attraction. More andmore tourists are interested in consuming backstage tourism, a notion that is firstintroduced by Dean MacCannell is beginning to be questioned again. MacCannellin Staged Authenticity theory defined that the production of a tourist attraction sitecould be made on six stages of setting, ranges in continuum according to how theperformance is shown. He developed the theory from Erving Goffman statementon Front Stage – Backstage Setting. The staged settings are: 1). Stage One, is thefront region. Performance is displayed in the totally built setting designed to pleasethe audience; 2) Stage Two, is actually the front region. It is designed in some of itsparticular to appear like a back region. Performance is displayed in a setting that isfunctionally a front stage in backstage appearance; 3) Stage Three, is the frontregion that is fully decorated to appear like a backstage region; 4) Stage Four, is theback region that is opened to public view, but is restricted at some places and , 5)Stage Five, is a back region that may be cleaned up or altered at some places to beviewed by tourists., 6) Stage Six, is the back region that is fully opened without anytouch up on the setting (MacCannell, 1973: 102).Backstage tourist sites expose the hidden aspects of the total attraction. But itcannot stand alone without any front stage. Backstage tourism is becoming popularbecause it emphasize on the tourists’ experience, by providing social interactionwith the local community. Post-Fordist tourists prefer this kind of attractionbecause they want experience that seems real, innocent, and evocative, beyond theattractions that is actually set up for tourist. Backstage tourism most generallyappear as cultural, heritage, or craft tourism 2 . Richard Grey (2007) said thatdeveloping cultural tourism sites nowadays is highly potential, becauseapproximately 37% of the world tourist destination is cultural tourism sites.Moreover, there is a tourists tendency to see other culture that is different or evencontrasted from their own culture. On cultural tourism, he also created a slogan“Our everyday life is someone else’s adventure”.In Indonesia, one of the potentials on cultural tourism development has beenexplored in the rise of many tourism villages, offering cultural, eco-nature, oradventure experiences. Indonesian Culture & Tourism government, throughPM26/UM001/MKP/2010   on The National Program of Community Development( Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat ) has been supporting the growth of tourism villages in each regions, because the demand is high, has direct benefits tothe community, and can be maintained and developed by the community itself fromtheir own village potentials without much effort. These cultural villages conceptgenerally correspond to the backstage tourism concept, because they are exposingvillage’s community everyday environment with its themed characteristics for the  Arte-Polis 4 Intl Conference - Creative Connectivity and the Making of Place: Living Smart by Design 4   Questioning Problems Of Territoriality. Yunita SETYONINGRUM tourists experience. The packages they offer commonly varied from half-day, one-day, to3-days programme, with various ‘everyday activity experiences with thelocals. 3  Following the preference characteristic of backstage tourism, the production of tourist attraction, including performance and its setting, should consider aspects of authenticity. Indeed, authenticity has been on debated in the field of tourism in therecent thirty years following the rise of Post-Fordist tourism tendency, as had beendescribed above. Related to the background of tourism as production andconsumption of signs, it seems that nothing can be thoroughly authentic.Everything had been constructed to fit the market, including tourism. Hence, howactually the authenticity that Post-Fordist tourism seek in backstage tourism isbeing question again. Wang (1999) described authenticity into three differenttypes: •   Objective authenticity. This is the same perception of authenticity thatMacCannell had formerly stated. •   Constructive authenticity. This is the perception of authenticity thattourists had from gazing on the images, their expectation and preferenceon destination decision-making, where experience of authenticity issocially constructed and hardly objectively measured. •   Existensialism authenticity. This is the perception of authenticity thattourist had when experiencing tourism activities. The second first are related to the objects of tourism, while the last is related toactivity of tourism. This research analysis will be based on objective authenticity,to give more focus on the objects/elements provided in the site setting. The topic of this paper highlights the potentials of Indonesian socio-cultural life andheritage as backstage cultural and heritage tourist attraction. A community-basedbatik village in Laweyan, Surakarta, Central Java is selected to be a case study, withthe emphasize on the transformation of residential space function, from livingspaceinto backstage tourist attractions. Kampung Batik Laweyan is selected because ithas long and dynamic historical background in its heritage and are still promotingtheir district as cultural, heritage, and craft tourist attraction until recent days. Themain problem in this research is questioning the authenticity in residential spaces of Kampung Laweyan attraction as backstage tourism vs territoriality problems, sincethere are some modification in the functional use of residential spaces. Datacollection for this research was prepared by literature study and field surveys. Andthe analysis method used is descriptive qualitative, based on the theory of:1). Staged Authenticity (MacCannell, 1973), to classify what stage are foundin Kampung Laweyan residential space as tourist attraction.2). Objective authenticity (Wang, 1999), to define the objects (and theirterritorial meanings) related to the authenticity found in the residentialbuildings as tourist attraction. The analysis focused only on the backstagesetting and the relation with frontstage setting in the whole performance LAWEYAN RESIDENTIAL SPACE TRANSFORMATION IN THESETTING OF BACKSTAGE TOURIST ATTRACTIONLaweyan Batik Village: Cultural, Heritage, and Craft Tourism Kampung Batik Laweyan which is located in Surakarta, Central Java, is well-known for its batik industry. It grows as a center for batik production and tradingsince 1500s, the era of Pajang dynasty, before Mataram ruled in Surakarta. The  Arte-Polis 4 Intl Conference - Creative Connectivity and the Making of Place: Living Smart by Design 5   Questioning Problems Of Territoriality. Yunita SETYONINGRUM name “Laweyan” means threads made from twisted cotton. Formerly, people inKampung Laweyan were instructed by the palace aristocrats to produce batikexclusively for them. But in the development, Laweyan also produced batik to beworn by the commoners. Laweyan grew as a rich batik industry because thecommunity’s creativity to create various alternative batik patterns and techniques,and sometimes were created against the rule and philosophy of batik. Laweyanpeople were called ‘ saudagar ’ which means rich merchants. Most of them are‘ Islam abangan ’, which is a religious conviction came from the acculturation of Islam and Javanese philosophy.Laweyan people clustered exclusively, so that they formed a new society class, anative Javanese middle class society, that is neither aristocrat (bangsawan, priyayi)or commoners ( wong cilik ). The rest of Surakarta community considered them asodd people because within Javanese belief, the activity of trade, to make a livingfrom commercial activities is abstinence; a deviant lifestyle that only known inChinese and Arab people. In the development of batik industry and trade, thewomen of Laweyan ( mbok mase ) in each families played an important role. It isalso a deviant character that is not common in Surakarta society, where womenwere always put in second place after men. Even there was a spreading rumor inthe society, that women of Laweyan used black magic power to accomplish theirwealth and should be avoided.Laweyan community different way of life made Laweyan more isolated from thetown native community, but grew more solid inward until the 1900s. Laweyan batikmerchants built very large houses with high-rise wall surrounding them whichaccomodate their living and working space. It is important for the merchants toshow off their wealth and status, though they were not aristocrats, through theirresidential appearance. They even copied the palace aristocrats lifestyle, from theclothes they wore to the use of residential decorative elements to affirm their status. The rise of mass printed-batik production on the 1970s to 2000s led Laweyan batikindustry into a fall-down. Many batik companies were closed down and sold out toChinese people. Laweyan younger generation then prefered to do other jobs ratherthan continuing their family batik business. There were only few companies left inthe rough time. Then in the 2000s, one of the descendant of batik company owner,Batik Mahkota, encouraged the other Laweyan businessman to rebuilt the splendourof Kampung Laweyan past as batik industry district. They formed Forum BudayaKampung Batik Laweyan (FBKBL) in 2004 which aimed to promote Laweyan ascultural heritage tourist destination and also batik shopping center in Surakarta. These entrepreneurs has been gradually revitalizing Laweyan based on thecommunity strength and potentials to a batik village for tourists consumption. In2009, Kampung Laweyan community received Upakarti award from thegovernment for their hard work in revitalizing the district.Kampung Laweyan district now has liven up with the flourish of showrooms,galleries, workshops, and a few homestays. The community welcomes small grouptourists to large groups such as school field trip groups and internationalsymposium participants. Most tourists trip to Kampung Laweyan is half-day trip,since it can be easily reached from other districts because its location at the centerof the town. Most tourists come to shop Laweyan batik products and to earnknowledge about batik production. Recently, FBKBL begin to promote theirbuildings as cultural heritage objects, to give some narration to the shopping
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