Interwar Hungary


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  Bethlen Government 04/04/2011 03:51:00    “Red Terror” –   campaign of terror by Bela Kun‟s communist forces in Hungary.  “White Terror” – response by Admiral Horthy by right wing extremists Teleki Government First priorities    Appease peasants    Re- establish law and end brutality of the „white terror‟ and resist anti-semitism    1/3 rd of people unemployedJews were continually punished    Reduced amount of Jews entering university    No longer allowed to conduct businesses in which the state had amonopoly    Land frequently expropriated by the stateLand reform of 1919 was repealed, but peasants were promisedredistribution    Bethlen, at Horthy‟s requested negotiated a deal for land reform in light of the danger of possible peasant land seizures o   Didn‟t do anyt hing to help poverty o   Big land owners argued that losing any more land wouldresult in an economic loss for HungaryResigned following a potential coup by exiled Charles IV Bethlen  „Regime of Consolidation‟: intended to place Hungary once more in the hands of the gentry and their Christian National Ideology.    Unified his party with the smallholders to become theGovernment Party, which he controlledConsiderable influence on politics    Formed the Old Right    Governmental control of the media and the police     Helped by the fact that apart from the Social Democrats, most of the political parties in Hungary were very liquid and small o   Left Wing Parties had been discredited due to the Sovietand Romanian occupationsAs prime minister announced the dethronement of the Habsburgs afterCharles tried to return for a second time.    Gombos turned the scales in the civil warfare Tried to control outbreaks of the „white terror‟ from right -wing extremistswho received protection under Horthy    Also did not condone anti-Semitism o   Bethlen knew this would create a bad foreign image o   Jews had also assimilated well into Hungarian culture o   BUT did limit the amount of Jews in the civil service    Bethlen restored order and reduced the privileged position thatthe armed forces had had.Bethlen Peyer Act – reduced the opposition role of the Social Democractsagainst HorthyBethlen very much against land reform    Argued that the small holding was less economically effectivethan the large one Depression ruined Bethlen‟s ideals      1932: Agricultural production only 44% of 1929 levels o   collapse of exports    Strikes became more common o   Massive demonstration in Budapest on 1 st September 1931Movement towards the right    No active left wing alternative    Universities producing students at a high rate who were activelyinclined to extremism    No more bureaucratic jobs to be had due to depression o   Move towards nationalism    Many held the Jews responsible  Gombos Regime, 1932-1936 04/04/2011 03:51:00   Gombos appointed prime minister because he was considered „the mostlikely to pacify the masses‟       Initially an admirer of Hitler, he had assisted in the Beer HallPutsch in 1923 o   After this became more enamoured with Mussolini, gained the nickname „Gombolini‟    Gombos had no time fore gentry: his cabinet was the first, bar Kun‟s, to have no counts in it. Wanted heavy land distribution, didn‟t care for industrialisation      Wanted Hungary to be a corporate state o   Introduced the 8 hour day and the 48 hours week.Land ownership came second to national priorities    The old right looked at this in abhorrence o   Gombos needed money from somewhereGombos initially promised a series of radical reforms, but these werenever realised even after 1935 elections when he had a stronger cabinet.    His land and entails settlements made little difference    Did achieve a trade agreement with Germany in 1934 though o   Helped Hungary out of depression o   Made non-Jewish farmers, merchants and manufacturersincreasingly pro-GermanGombos argued that Germany was helping Hungary break free of the  „Jewish Middleman‟    Gombos radicalism was curtailed somewhat by Horthy‟s requirements on his acceptance of the post of Prime Minister    He couldn‟t dissolve parliament   o   Meant that until 1935 he had to work with a parliament tailored to Bethlen‟s ideals      Couldn‟t tackle land reform until economic health was restored      Jewish issue could not be legislated againstHowever, did try to make fascist headway    Demanded to be made head of Government Party which herenamed to Party of National Unity    Refused to defend Government Party deputies from attacks from Independent Smallholder‟s Party       Tried to fuse party and government o   Made foispans presidents of local Government Partybranches o   Government control of press was strengthened o   Security forces monitoring communications o   Tried to replace senior officers in the army with his ownnominations, vetoed initially but succeeded after a massresignation of officers following League of Nations reportinto the assassination of Alexander of Yugoslavia
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