Fungicidal Sprays


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The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised in 1996. EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource. Please visit the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to find updated pesticide fact sheets. If you don't find a fact sheet related to your question, feel free to call 1-800-858-7378. NPIC is open seven days a week from 6:30am to 4:30pm Pacific Time. EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network Pesticide Information Profi
    The information in this profile may be out-of-date. It was last revised in 1996.EXTOXNET no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as areference or resource. Please visit the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) to find updatedpesticide fact sheets. If you don't find a fact sheet related to your question, feel free to call 1-800-858-7378. NPIC is open seven days a week from 6:30am to 4:30pm Pacific Time. E X T O X N E T   Extension Toxicology Network   Pesticide Information Profiles A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, OregonState University, the University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and theInstitute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University. Major support and fundingwas provided by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide ImpactAssessment Program.EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State UniversityRevised June 1996 Copper sulfate   Trade and Other Names: Copper sulfate is also called Agritox, Basicap, BSC CopperFungicide, CP Basic Sulfate and Tri-Basic Copper Sulfate. The pentahydrate form is calledbluestone, blue vitriol, Salzburg vitriol, Roman vitriol, and blue copperas. Bordeaux  Mixture is a combination of hydrated lime and copper sulfate. Copper sulfate is often found incombination with other pesticides. Regulatory Status: Copper sulfate is classified as a General Use Pesticide (GUP) by theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Copper sulfate is toxicity class I - highly toxic. Itbears the Signal Word DANGER - POISON. Because of its potentially harmful effects on someendangered aquatic species, surface water use may require a permit in some places. Chemical Class: sulfate Introduction: Copper sulfate is a fungicide used to control bacterial and fungal diseases of fruit, vegetable, nut, and field crops. These diseases include mildew, leaf spots, blights, andapple scab. It is used as a protective fungicide (Bordeaux mixture) for leaf application and seedtreatment. It is also used as an algacide and herbicide, and to kill slugs and snails in irrigationand municipal water treatment systems. It has been used to control dutch elm disease. It isavailable as a dust, wettable powder, or liquid concentrate. Formulation: It is available as a dust, wettable powder, or liquid concentrate. Toxicological Effects:      Acute toxicity: Copper sulfate is caustic and acute toxicity is largely due to this property[8]. There have been reports of human suicide resulting from the ingestion of gramquantities of this material [21]. The lowest dose of copper sulfate that has been toxicwhen ingested by humans is 11 mg/kg [22]. Ingestion of copper sulfate is often not toxicbecause vomiting is automatically triggered by its irritating effect on the gastrointestinaltract. Symptoms are severe, however, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, as inthe unconscious victim. Some of the signs of poisoning which occurred after 1 to 12 g of copper sulfate was swallowed include a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in thechest and abdomen, intense nausea, repeated vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating,shock, discontinued urination leading to yellowing of the skin. Injury to the brain, liver,kidneys, and stomach and intestinal linings may also occur in copper sulfate poisoning[23]. Copper sulfate can be corrosive to the skin and eyes [8]. It is readily absorbedthrough the skin and can produce a burning pain, as well as the other symptoms of poisoning resulting from ingestion. Skin contact may result in itching or eczema [8]. It isa skin sensitizer and can cause allergic reactions in some individuals [24]. Eye contactwith this material can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, corneatissue deterioration, and clouding of the cornea [23]. Examination of copper sulfatepoisoned animals showed signs of acute toxicity in the spleen, liver, and kidneys [8].Injury may also occur to the brain, liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract in response tooverexposure to this material [22]. The oral LD50 of copper is 472 mg/kg in rats [8].    Chronic toxicity: Vineyard sprayers experienced liver disease after 3 to 15 years of exposure to copper sulfate solution in Bordeaux mixture [8]. Long term effects are morelikely in individuals with Wilson's disease, a condition which causes excessive absorptionand storage of copper [25]. Chronic exposure to low levels of copper can lead to anemia  [8]. The growth of rats was retarded when given dietary doses of 25 mg/kg/day of coppersulfate. Dietary doses of 200 mg/kg/day caused starvation and death [8]. Sheep given oraldoses of 20 mg/kg/day showed blood cell and kidney damage [8]. They also showed anabsence of appetite, anemia, and degenerative changes [22].    Reproductive effects: Copper sulfate has been shown to cause reproductive effects intest animals. Testicular atrophy increased in birds as they were fed larger amounts of copper sulfate. Sperm production was also interrupted to varying degrees [8].Reproduction and fertility was affected in pregnant rats given this material on day 3 of pregnancy [23].    Teratogenic effects: There is very limited evidence about the teratogenic effects of copper sulfate. Heart disease occurred in the surviving offspring of pregnant hamstersgiven intravenous copper salts on day 8 of gestation [8]. These data suggest that coppersulfate is unlikely to be teratogenic in humans at expected exposure levels.    Mutagenic effects: Copper sulfate may cause mutagenic effects at high doses. At 400and 1000 ppm, copper sulfate caused mutations in two types of microorganisms [22].Such effects are not expected in humans under normal conditions.    Carcinogenic effects: Copper sulfate at 10 mg/kg/day caused endocrine tumors inchickens given the material parenterally, that is, outside of the gastrointestinal tractthrough an intravenous or intramuscular injection [22]. However, the relevance of theseresults to mammals, including humans, is not known.    Organ toxicity: Long-term animal studies indicate that the testes and endocrine glandshave been affected.    Fate in humans and animals: Absorption of copper sulfate into the blood occursprimarily under the acidic conditions of the stomach. The mucous membrane lining of theintestines acts as a barrier to absorption of ingested copper [8]. After ingestion, more than99% of copper is excreted in the feces. However, residual copper is an essential traceelement that is strongly bioaccumulated [8]. It is stored primarily in the liver, brain, heart,kidney, and muscles. Ecological Effects:      Effects on birds: Copper sulfate is practically nontoxic to birds. It poses less of a threatto birds than to other animals. The lowest lethal dose (LDLo) is 1000 mg/kg in pigeonsand 600 mg/kg in ducks [8]. The oral LD50 for Bordeaux mixture in young mallards is2000 mg/kg [27].    Effects on aquatic organisms: Copper sulfate is highly toxic to fish [28]. Even atrecommended rates of application, this material may be poisonous to trout and other fish,especially in soft or acid waters. Its toxicity to fish generally decreases as water hardnessincreases. Fish eggs are more resistant than young fish fry to the toxic effects of coppersulfate [26]. Copper sulfate is toxic to aquatic invertebrates, such as crab, shrimp, andoysters. The 96-hour LC50 of copper sulfate to pond snails is 0.39 mg/L at 20 C. Higherconcentrations of the material caused some behavioral changes, such as secretion of mucous, and discharge of eggs and embryos [8].    Effects on other organisms: Bees are endangered by Bordeaux mixture [1]. Coppersulfate may be poisonous to sheep and chickens at normal application rates. Most  animal life in soil, including large earthworms, have been eliminated by the extensive useof copper containing fungicides in orchards [28]. Environmental Fate:      Breakdown in soil and groundwater: Since copper is an element it will persistindefinitely. Copper is bound, or adsorbed, to organic materials, and to clay and mineralsurfaces. The degree of adsorption to soils depends on the acidity or alkalinity of the soil[8]. Because copper sulfate is highly water soluble, it is considered one of the moremobile metals in soils. However, because of it binding capacity, its leaching potential islow in all but sandy soils [8]. When applied with irrigation water, copper sulfate does notaccumulate in the surrounding soils. Some (60%) is deposited in the sediments at thebottom of the irrigation ditch, where it becomes adsorbed to clay, mineral, and organicparticles. Copper compounds also settle out of solution [26].    Breakdown in water: As an element, copper can persist indefinitely. However, it willbind to water particulates and sediment.    Breakdown in vegetation: One of the limiting factors in the use of copper compounds istheir serious potential for phytotoxicity [24]. Copper sulfate can kill plants by disruptingphotosynthesis. Blue-green algae in some copper sulfate treated Minnesota lakes becameincreasingly resistant to the algacide after 26 years of use [28]. Physical Properties:      Appearance: Copper sulfate crystals are blue or green white and odorless [1].    Chemical Name: copper sulfate [1]    CAS Number: 7758-98-7    Molecular Weight: 249.68    Water Solubility: Anhydrous form; 230,500 mg/L at 25 C [1]    Solubility in Other Solvents: methanol s.s. [3]; ethanol i.s. [1]    Melting Point: Above 110 C, copper sulfate loses water of crystallization with formationof the monohydrate; above 250 C it loses all water of crystallization [1]    Vapor Pressure: Nonvolatile [1]    Partition Coefficient: Not Available    Adsorption Coefficient: Not Available Exposure Guidelines:      ADI: Not Available    MCL : Not Available    RfD: Not Available    PEL: 1.0 mg/m3 (8-hour) (copper dusts or mists) [14]    HA : Not Available    TLV : Not Available Basic Manufacturer:  
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