Fibonacci Video Encryption

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Description
The concept of motion image based wireless monitoring and control system, the main requirements from the M2M communities and related encryption method of the wireless system are described. Section I is the introduction of M2M system, section II is the concept for the scrambling of motion image based video signals with transcendental number that is iterated over Fibonacci prime number sequence, with video time stamp and user pass phrase ...
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  • 1. Scrambling M2M Motion Image with Extended Fibonacci Sequence By Hong Xuan QIAN, Qing ZOU, Jun Steed HUANG 19920 Pacific Heights Boulevard, San Diego, CA 92121, USA Suqian College, 399 South Huanghe Road, 223800, China June 13-14, 2015 2015 International Conference on Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Suzhou
  • 2. Number Matters. Agenda 1.Introduction 2.Encryption Method 3.M2M Scrambling Scheme 4.Simulation and Experiments 5.Conclusion and Future Work 2015 International Conference on Computer Science and Communication Engineering
  • 3. Number Matters. 1. Introduction There are four different ways to explain what is M2M video streaming: Machine2Man (for security applications), Man2Man (for commercial fast delivery services), Man2Machine (for mining and oil industries) and Machine2Machine (for environmental protections). 1. Analog video monitoring system is the first generation. 2. Digital Video Recorder is the second generation. 3. The third generation is based on Internet Protocol (IP). The IP through WiFi, WiMax, WiGig, LiFi, LTE or Terahertz-wave. Here we focus on the end-to-end encryption aspect of the latest system.
  • 4. Number Matters. 911 After Effects In the law enforcement and homeland security, with third generation solution, greater numbers of sensitive sites can be monitored in less bandwidth than can be covered with conventional video techniques. In the event of a major occurrence, small low- bandwidth drop-off cameras provide the command post with real time video of the event scene, through the machine-to-man remote settings. Knowing the exact situation is crucial for mining rescue authorities. First responder mine worker can carry miniature video systems on- site to provide data center server with all sensor readings for the computer to summarize the CO density map, to allow decision- makers to call action plans. This is the man-to-machine quick sensor data gathering system.
  • 5. Number Matters. Cloud After Effects The hand held cameras send real-time video back to the courier center over existing radio channels, can be used for potential users range from online fast delivery to just in time of rapid inventory control and other emergency logistics situations. This is mainly for man-to-man verification video communications. Flood-prone streams and rivers can be monitored for rising water levels with the machine-to-machine settings. The extreme portability, low bandwidth and low power requirements of such live video system supports rapid temporary deployment of video monitoring, for example in late winter and early spring when ice jams can cause water flows to reach dangerous levels with little or no warning.
  • 6. Number Matters. Mobile is Going Everywhere The advanced digital wireless camera, overcomes the disadvantages of the analogue one, and brings advantages of longer distance reach, better penetration through obstacles, light weight, easy set up, added encryption feature, flexible storage formats (MPEG4/H265, MJPEG/JPEG or proprietary) and flexible transportation formats (native or IP). The typical M2M network configuration for wireless camera is shown in Fig. 1. The first block is the video capture end, transmitter (Tx). It transmits encrypted video to the receiver, and at the same time it can also receive commands from the laptop, tablet or BlackBerry through the cloud. The transmitter (on robot) can also transmit the sensor data along with the scrambled video signal to mac book etc.
  • 7. Number Matters. Figure 1: Sample M2M Network Configuration Tx Rx Apple Black Berry CDMA/ GSM M2M Scra mblin g 400MHz
  • 8. Number Matters. Each Blocks The receiver (Rx), relays bi-directional signal between transmitter and the laptop. The interface between receiver and the laptop is USB interface. The link between transmitter is a licensed 400MHz FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) radio. The third block can be a tablet, laptop or mac book. The transmitter transmits the video signal from a remote site to the control center (software installed on any machine). Control Center (CC) transmits commands back to the remote camera site, such as turn on hazard flashing light etc. The next two blocks are CDMA (or GSM) network and handheld devices such as BlackBerry or WinCE device. When BlackBerry is used, push server can be set up to introduce more inter-activities between a handheld and a camera. When Android phone is used, P2P protocol is preferred, this will simplify the server construction.
  • 9. Number Matters. 2. Encryption Scheme - Mathematics Background When the network cloud is a private system, the existing encryption might be sufficient; however when the network cloud includes public network, a better encryption becomes necessary. Maintaining several passwords across a number of wired and wireless networks can be cumbersome. An end-to-end pass phrase and time stamp based encryption in this case is highly desirable for most end users. A Fibonacci number sequence is defined as the next number in the sequence being made from the summation of previous two numbers, if the very first two numbers are 1, then it is called original Fibonacci sequence, if the very first two seeds are any numbers, we call it Extended or Generalized Fibonacci sequence.
  • 10. Number Matters. Fibonacci Properties
  • 11. Number Matters. Shang Gao Theorem
  • 12. Number Matters. 3.M2M Scrambling Scheme There are two types of encryption, symmetrical or asymmetrical. An asymmetric encryption has keys come in a pairs. One is for encryption, the other for decryption. The symmetrical method uses the same key to encrypt and to decrypt the message. The encryption of video stream is historically called scrambling as well. Since the same key is used, it is important to safe guard that key. The recommended method for exchanging the key is through a secured communication system, where asymmetric encryption or quantum encryption shall be used. In this paper we focus on generating the good symmetrical key. Where the key matches with the motion JPEG, in the sense that the spectrum of the key is white enough, once applied to the image frame, it will alter the spectrum of the frame, and make it also white.
  • 13. Number Matters. Why not AES For a small number of cameras or a single camera case, the key generation is not that complicated, however for M2M network, the number of cameras can be large, as such we use administrator pass phrase with the time stamp that contains the camera identification to generate the key, through the use of the Extended Fibonacci sequence [3]. This way the user can type in the pass phrase that they feel comfortable with and that is easy to memorize, and leave the worry about the quality of the key to the transcendental number theory [4]. There are two main encryption algorithms on the market. They are DES (Data Encryption Standard) and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). We are not using anyone of them due to the computation burden. The method we used is SES (Swapping Encryption System) explained in reference [5], in summary it is a convolution based scrambling algorithm, on top of the interleaving based algorithm. The interleaving part has been explained already in reference [6]. This paper is focusing on the convolution part [7].
  • 14. Number Matters. Productive rather than Additive MJPEG based video compression has compressed the information so hard that the resulted code word has a very strong pattern that is vulnerable to attack. Either DES or AES shuffles the data a number of rounds, which may make the pattern more obvious, while consume a lot of energy. This is fine for uncompressed or lightly compressed data, but not good for heavily compressed data like Motion JPEG image. The problem is very much like when you zip a zipped file, the file size will become even larger. For such data, we just need a good white key to do few rounds, to balance out the spectrum, as seen later on in simulation and experiments.
  • 15. Number Matters. Detail Algorithm Here is the pseudo code of the key generation algorithm. 1.Initialize the code 2.Get frame size and image size 3.Determine the encryption key size: root(frameSize/16)/(width mod (height)) 4.Find the largest Fibonacci prime that is within root(frameSize) iterations as seed Key(1) 5.Convert to vector format, as seed Key(2), and compute the spectrum 6.Obtain the user pass phrase 7.Obtain the video time stamp 8.Mix them with Extended Fibonacci formula: Key(n) = Key(n-1)*passPhrase + Key(n-2)*timeStamp 9.Compute the spectrum and its standard deviation (std) 10.If std is small enough to white out the frame, stop, otherwise go back to step 8.
  • 16. Number Matters. 4.Simulation and Experiments We have done a number of trials with customers across the world. The trial band runs from 300MHz all the way to 2.4GHz. The distance range from 200 meters underground to 1000 meters for an open pit area. Three typical MJPEG files are captured from the field and simulated in Matlab. They are – 1. VGA Tx-Rx Color frame, 640x480 pixels size, 62515 bytes frame size; – 2. HD Rabbit frame, 1280x960 pixels size, 117745 bytes frame size; – 3. VGA Night vision frame, 640x480 pixels size, 16806 bytes frame size. Following figures show the actual pictures and the spectrum for each of them before and after the convolution with the key.
  • 17. Number Matters. Figure 2: VGA Frame Head and its Spectrum with the Key
  • 18. Number Matters. Figure 3: HD Frame Tail and its Spectrum with the Key
  • 19. Number Matters. Figure 4: Night-Vision Middle Frame and its Spectrum with the Key
  • 20. Number Matters. 5. Conclusion and future work The main information we offered here is that the transcendental number in general will provide very white base spectrum, that is needed to cover up the video information. The best number we have found so far is e^pi. As such, we mixed the two numbers to generate the Fibonacci like sequence, using pass phrase as the current non-zero-able weight, and use the time stamp as the previous zero-able weight. With this extended way, we inherit the white spectrum. Back to the original story: the extended rabbit family now starts from more than two rabbits, and when they grow their family numbers along the Fibonacci like way, there is a chance that the twin babies are expected, also there is a chance that the bobcat may eat some of their babies very unfortunately! The example code is available from Matlab file exchange server: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/profile/authors/6205312-steed-huang 2015 International Conference on Computer Science and Communication Engineering
  • 21. Number Matters. Acknowledge This research was financially supported by GenieView subsidiaries and partners. Thanks go to Prof. Yuhui Shi, Helen Liu and Mr. Guangqian Lu for discussions. 2015 International Conference on Computer Science and Communication Engineering, Suzhou
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