Condensate Summary

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HEALTH HAZARD AWARENESS TRAINING Summary Sheet CONDENSATE This Summary Sheet is intended to provide the presenter with additional material in the event of questions from the audience. It should be reviewed before the Health Hazard Awareness Presentation is given. Use the Script for the words to deliver during the presentation. General Condensate is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons that occurs as a vapor in underground gas reservoirs. When natural gas is brought to the surface, the temperature an
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  HEALTH HAZARD AWARENESS TRAININGSummary Sheet Condensate, Summary SheetVersion 1February 25 th , 2005Page 1 CONDENSATE This Summary Sheet is intended to provide the presenter with additional material in the event of questions from the audience. It should be reviewed before the Health Hazard Awareness Presentation is given. Use the Script for the words to deliver during the presentation. GeneralCondensate is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons that occurs as a vapor in underground gasreservoirs. When natural gas is brought to the surface, the temperature and pressuredecrease causing the vapors to condense to liquid. Condensates are very volatile liquidswith negligible solubility in water. They are clear, amber or brown in colour.Condensates may be recovered without processing at platforms on gas or condensate fields(known as 'field condensate') and during processing at a gas plant (known as 'Natural GasLiquids' or NGL’s). A condensate stream may arise on an oil platform, which also producesgas (e.g. knocked out in the compression section). This is normally mixed back into the crudeor the gas, either in storage or by injection into the pipeline.(Additional note: At a gas plant, the incoming material is cooled to a very low temperature andthe NGL’s separate out. These may be further separated into ethane, propane, butane and'natural gasoline' or 'plant condensate' which contains primarily C5 and greater. Liquifiedpropane and butane are also known as Liquified Petroleum Gases).The main constituents of Condensate are normally C4 to C8 hydrocarbons. Condensate maycontain variable amounts of aromatics such as benzene (refer to the Benzene Health HazardSummary Sheet), toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene; cycloaromatics such as cyclohexane;and methyl cyclohexane and lighter residual C 1 to C 3 hydrocarbons (refer to the HydrocarbonGases Health Hazard Summary Sheet). It may also contain hydrogen sulfide and/ormercaptans and/or organic sulphides (sour condensate , which are potentially harmful andodourous compounds, refer to the Hydrogen Sulphide Health Hazard Summary Sheet).Condensate may be sweet (no hydrogen sulphide) or sour (contains hydrogen sulfide). Seethe separate health hazard summary sheet for hydrogen sulphide.The constituents of condensate will vary between locations and the information presented onthis sheet is generalized.Occurrence and exposure  Condensate, Summary SheetVersion 1February 25 th , 2005Page 2 Condensates are present throughout ExxonMobil’s various fields and facilities. Exposuremay occur during exploration, development and production activities including for instancedrilling, sampling, maintenance and shutdowns.Routes of exposureThe main routes of exposure are inhalation and skin contact.Effects of exposureThe composition of the Condensate influences the possible health effects related tooverexposure to Condensate.In general, overexposure to vapours, mists or fumes may cause irritation of the eyes, noseand throat, and narcosis (e.g. headaches, dizziness, nausea and loss of consciousness). It ispossible, especially in confined spaces, for sufficient vapour to be released to diluteatmospheric oxygen and cause asphyxia. Prolonged or repeated overexposure to thecomponents in condensate may have central and peripheral neurotoxic effects . Here is some further detail on the narcotic effects of constituents of condensate:Overexposure to the C4-C8   hydrocarbons may result in narcotic effects. These may arisefollowing overexposure for only ten minutes to concentrations of 5000 ppm (pentane, hexaneand heptane) or 8,000-10,000 ppm (butane and octane).For condensate that contains benzene, note that long-term overexposure to benzene isassociated with serious blood disorders including leukaemia.n-Hexane is another important constituent of condensate for health. Overexposure to n-hexane may cause nausea, headache, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat atconcentrations of 1500 ppm. However, the principal effects are irreversible changes to theperipheral nervous system. Prolonged or repeated exposure to concentrations of n-hexane of20-100 ppm is associated with measurable changes to the peripheral nervous system.Concentrations of 500 ppm are associated with damage to the peripheral nervous system. n-Hexane damages sensory nerves which go from the remote parts of the body (ie the limbs)to the brain, so that there is a lack of feeling. It also damages the nerves from the brain to thelimbs which control movement (motor nerves) so it is difficult to initiate movement.The acute systemic toxicity of ingested condensate is low, but minute amounts aspirated intothe lungs during ingestion or vomiting may cause severe pulmonary injury and death.Prolonged or repeated skin contact may defat the skin causing irritation and dermatitis, but ifPNA’s are present, then there may also be a risk of skin cancer. Some components ofcondensate, particularly benzene, may be absorbed through the skin.Some condensates are irritating to the eyes while other condensates are practically non-irritating.  Condensate, Summary SheetVersion 1February 25 th , 2005Page 3 Inadvertent ingestion is hazardous but unlikely in the workplace. Although unlikely, it isnecessary to understand the danger of aspiration of minute amounts of crude oil into thelungs during ingestion or vomiting, which may cause severe pulmonary injury and death.Refer to the benzene, hydrocarbon gases, hydrogen sulphide, mercury and poly nucleararomatics (PNA’s) Health Hazard Summary Sheets for data specific to these components ifactually present in the condensate of concern.Other hazardsNatural gas condensate is extremely flammable. Vapour accumulation could flash and/orexplode if in contact with open flame.  Condensate, Summary SheetVersion 1February 25 th , 2005Page 4 Exposure LimitsExposure limits for certain specific hydrocarbons are given in the following Table.SubstanceExposure limit 1 ,8-hrExposure limit 1 ,15 minType of limitMethane – Propane1,000 ppmEM-OELButane800 ppmACGIH-TLVPentane600 ppmACGIH-TLVn-Hexane50 ppm(176 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVOther hexaneisomers500 ppm(1760 mg/m3)1,000 ppm(3520 mg/m3)ACGIH-TLVn-Heptane400 ppm(1635 mg/3)500 ppm(2045 mg/m3)ACGIH-TLVOctane300 ppm(1400 mg/m3)ACGIH-TLVCyclohexane100 ppm(350 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVBenzene0.5 ppm(1.6 mg/m 3 )2.5 ppm(8 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVToluene50 ppm(191 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVEthyl Benzene100 ppm(441mg/m 3 )125 ppm(552 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVXylene100 ppm(441 mg/m 3 )150 ppm(655 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVNaphthalene10 ppm(53 mg/m 3 )15 ppm(80 mg/m 3 )ACGIH-TLVGeneric Precautions for Routine OperationsContact with condensate should be avoided. Safety goggles or glasses should be worn.Chemical resistant overalls and chemically impervious gloves (nitrile or neoprene polymer)should be used if prolonged or repeated skin contact is likely.If it is necessary to enter a contaminated area, use breathing apparatus if concentrations areunknown. If concentrations are known then the appropriate level of respiratory protectionshould be worn dependent upon the component of concern, the concentration and thecorresponding occupational exposure limit.Avoid inhalation of vapours or mists. Do not use smell to identify samples.
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