Using Video in Science Teacher Education: An Analysis of the Utilization of Video-Based Media by Teacher Educators and Researchers

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In this chapter, we examine trends involving video usage in science teacher education and science education research. We trace developments in video technologies and explore examples of the ways in which video/multimedia have been utilized in the
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  1Running Head: Using video in science teacher educationTitle: Using video in science teacher education:An analysis of the utilization of video-basedmedia by teacher educators and researchers   Authors:Sonya N. Martin, Drexel UniversityChristina Siry, University of LuxembourgFull address:Sonya Martin, Ph.D.Assistant Professor of Science EducationDrexel University School of EducationKorman Center, Rm 2333141 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphia, PA 19104Email:Sonya.Martin@Drexel.Edu Christina Siry, Ph.D.Post-doctoral researcher CODI-SCILE-A project (Competences for Organizing Discourse in Interaction and ScienceLearning - Analyzing knowledge building as activity of collaborative inquiring)University of LuxembourgFaculty of Humanities, Arts and Educational SciencesUnit for Sociocultural Research on Learning and Development - UR LCMI (Language, Culture,Media and Identities)Route de DiekirchL-7220 Walferdange, LuxembourgEmail:chrissiry@gmail.com   2 Using video in science teacher education:An analysis of the utilization of video-based media by teacher educators and researchers Sonya N. Martin and Christina SiryABSTRACT: In this chapter, we examine trends involving video usage in science teacher education and science education research. We tracing some developments in video technologiesand explore examples of the ways in which video/multimedia have been utilized in the educationof science teachers. We conclude the review by summarizing our findings, and then offer implications for future research on the utilization of video and multimedia technologies in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. Specifically we raise questionsand considerations for future research as it relates to science teacher education and research inscience education.KEY WORDS: Technology, Teacher Education, and Learning SciencesINTRODUCTIONThere is an increasing trend towards incorporating video and multimedia 1 into teacher education for both K-12 pre- and in-service teachers of science. As programs attempt to meetU.S. accreditation standards, they must include examples of technology integration andinstructional practices, and for many, video technologies help fulfill this goal. Our purpose inwriting this review chapter is to examine the trends involving video usage in science teacher education and science education research that we have noted in the literature, both recentdirections as well as early uses of video, which science educators have been developing andadapting over the last three decades.We begin by tracing some developments in video technologies and exploring examples of the ways in which video/multimedia have been utilized in the education of science teachers. For  1 In this chapter, we are considering both the use of video, as well as the use of multimedia programs that generally include video clips or vignettes as one part of the media component. Weuse both terms within the chapter, but attempt to distinguish for the reader how the video isutilized in each context.  3example, we examine the utilization of commercial multi-media programs focusing on snapshotsof “best practices” available via the Internet and often packaged with new textbooks. We alsofocus on some of the web-based technologies and software that enable educational researchersand teacher participants to edit video content (both from their own classrooms and others) andthen author and share their analyses of the video with a larger teacher or educational researchcommunity. We also note a growing emphasis in science teacher education towards having pre-service and in-service teachers develop electronic portfolios, including video vignettes of teacher  practice with reflections as evidence for development as a critical practitioner. We conclude thereview by summarizing our findings, and then continue by offering implications for futureresearch on the utilization of video and multimedia technologies in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. Specifically we raise questions and considerationsfor future research as it relates to science teacher education and research in science education.VIDEO TECHNOLOGIES AND TEACHER EDUCATIONProponents of video usage in teacher education often reason that teaching occurs inisolation from peer support, and that sharing video of one’s teaching with others offers anopportunity to not only see oneself in the act of teaching, but also provides a convenient“window into a classroom” where others can view and discuss the teaching and learning that has been documented. Video serves as a lasting record, which can be reviewed and analyzed over and over from different perspectives, with different people, and over long periods of time.Advances in technologies have now made it possible for teachers, students, and researchers tonot only view video, but to also rewind, fast forward, and advance the video frame by frame toanalyze classroom interactions. This can support careful consideration of participant actions and  4discourse around pedagogy and content, and provides a focus on individual and collectivegestures and interactions at the micro level. In this way, the use of video by classroom participants and researchers mediates becoming consciously aware of the unconscious practicesthat are not generally available to us when social life unfolds in real time. These technologiesalso enable teachers, students, and researchers to engage in multiple analyses from differing perspectives and theoretical frames as long as the video lasts. Indeed, watching oneself and other teachers has become common practice in teacher education and promises to become more so asvideo continues to be an important means of evaluation and instruction in education programsaround the world.Over the last fifty years, technologies for recording, storing, and showing video have become more affordable, portable, and accessible for general consumers as well as educators.Currently, digital video cameras no larger than a box of crayons can be purchased for about$150-$200 USD (e.g. FlipVideohttp://ca.theflip.com/), which record 60-120 minutes of videothat can then be transferred immediately via a USB connection to a computer for instant digitalvideo editing and analysis. The availability of such inexpensive videography equipment for theeveryday consumer is rapidly changing the ways in which people (particularly young people)interact with video and multimedia in their lives, especially through image, video, blog, or socialnetwork hosting/sharing sites such as Flickr, YouTube, Blogger, MySpace or Ning. Indeed, anew generation of learners, and future teachers, who are sometimes referred to in the media as“digital natives”, are coming of age as students in K-20 classrooms.Even when new technologies are being touted in the popular media, and students fromyounger generations are becoming experts at utilizing “cutting-edge” technologies, there isgenerally a considerable lag-time between when new equipment, software programs, or   5applications of media become available and when these technologies are introduced into K-12classrooms. A trend that we have noted in the literature indicates that the implementation of newtechnologies in science teacher education often trails behind the use in the consumer market for several reasons, including policies that make access in K-12 schools complicated as well as alack of training and professional development for current and future teachers in technologyinstruction and implementation.In an historical overview outlining major video implementation advances in teacher education programs, spanning nearly forty years since the late 1960s, Miriam Sherin (2004)accounts for some aspects of these trends in the literature via an interesting analysis of how videoimplementation has been driven by prevailing theoretical frameworks in education, as well astechnological innovations. Sherin cites the evolution of learning theories from primarily behaviorist models where teaching was viewed as a “well-defined activity consisting of a set of skills to be practiced and learned”, to the growth of cognitive psychology models of learning toteach where “researchers and teacher educators began to focus more on the ways in whichteachers think  rather than the ways in which teachers behave ” (p.5). She argues that as a result of these theoretical shifts, teaching began to be seen as a more complex activity from which notionsthat utilizing video to help novice teachers develop practical teaching knowledge, by observingand analyzing the actions of veteran teachers, began to emerge. Sherin suggests that video usagehas been influenced by these changes, noting that early use focused on re-viewing episodes of microteaching or analyzing/coding teacher actions in video (e.g., via the Flanders (1970)method) to identify, discuss, and emulate specific teaching actions characterized as behavioralaspects of classroom teaching practices. In the 1980s, Sherin notes that researchers changed their focus to examining teacher thinking, teacher practice, and developing teachers’ abilities to reflect
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