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  • 2. ELICITING - A teacher who can elicit or draw out appropiate verbal language from students rather than tell them what to say gets students more actively involved , increases their motivation and enhances their learning satisfaction. - When eliciting functional language it´s important that learners sound right. - Ex: When apologizing students should sound as if they feel sorry and are not just using the words without meaning. - In order to sound right, students need to learn to use appropiate word stress and intonation. - It´s useful to teach and elicit suitable responses: «I´m really sorry» «Oh that´s okay, or «Never mind», or «No problem».
  • 3. • It´s also important that students are aware of register .Without this awareness, learners often sound too formal or too friendly . • Eliciting can be done in the following ways : ASK QUESTIONS: Use wh-questions (what, who, where, why, when and how) Rather than yes/no questions. • GIVE INSTRUCTIONS THAT REQUIRE VERBAL INTERACTION: -Tell the person next to you: -Describe what can you see in this picture.
  • 4. -USE REAL OBJECTS (REALIA) • EX: Show students a credit card and a checkbook and ask «What are these called? What´s the difference between them? -USE VISUAL AIDS(drawings, flashcards, videos,etc) -GIVE DEFINITIONS: • Ex: to elicit the word bachelor ask a question using the word´s definition: «What do we call a man who has never married?» USE SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Ex: we can ask which word is similar in meaning to slim? Which word is opposite in meaning to dead?
  • 5. USE GESTURES AND MIME • Many verbs and adjectives (sad, happy, angry)can be easily using gestures and facial expressions. • It´s possible to elicit a short story or sequence of actions.This simple drama technique is fun and enjoyable if you are comfortable with its use. USE PROMPTS , CUES AND QUESTIONS IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS Establish a context that invites that students to talk . Ex: How would you respond to the following situations: It´s my 21st birthay today! Look at my new watch. What do you think? FILL GAPS IN TABLES, SCALES, OR DIAGRAMS • Ex: put up a diagram representing a thermometer and indicating the position of hot and cold . REVIEW KEY VOCABULARY Make a list of words from previous lessons.You could write this list on the board or write the terms on cards and have each student take one. Remind the students of related words or structures and ask questions that will elicit use of the key vocabulary.
  • 6. USE TRANSLATION Translation should be used sparingly. Be aware that this method of eliciting can only work in monolingual classes, (if you are teaching Englishin a Spanish-speaking country ).You need to speak and understand the native language well enough to check the accuracy of the translation. WAYS OF ELICITING a.How would you elicit the following words? 1.To jog 2.To feed someone 3.Jealous 4.A refound 5.Above and below 6.Bald 7.A banana 8.Depressed 9. A costume 10. Lion b.Think of simple ways to elicit examples of the following: Making an apology Warning someone of danger Congratulating someone
  • 7. MAKING CORRECTIONS WHEN ELICITING RESPONSES • When eliciting responses from learners do not be too rigid or disapproving of how they answer. • If the response isn´t right but it´s not totally unacceptable then say «try again» or «yes, but....» . Don´t just reject and discourage the student´s attempts. • Above all, avoid setting up a situation in which students are trying to guess «what the teacher is fishing for» • You should anticipate what learners are likely to say (or no be able to express)before the lesson.
  • 8. Restricted oral practice. -Learning a specific language structure requires intensive practice. - It’s better to think of this practice as restricted oral practice rather than drilling. Why ? - Eliciting responses in short periods ( 3 - 5 minutes ) is one way to make certain that the language structure being practiced means something to the students….. - This activity can be done for longer periods in the language lab ( 20 minutes ), where the students can work alone at their own pace on their individual problems.
  • 9. - Making use of eliciting techniques. - Giving the cue or the model sentence before you ask a particular student to respond. - Don't point to one student and then give the cue or the prompt. - You can get all the students to formulate the response mentally and not "switch off" because they are not going to be asked. TEACHING ASKING EXAMPLES
  • 10. Repetition -The most basic type of oral practice is simple repetition: Teacher: He plays in the park. Students: He plays in the park. - It is useful to beginners and is not boring if it’s done with attention to detail. -It can be used to help learners improve their pronunciation as well as to correct common faults….. - Vary the repetition by using choral and individual practice…….. - You need to be demanding and insist on the correctness of students' responses - This is the time for accurate speaking practice….
  • 11. Echo Questions -Make statements that have to be transformed into questions by a change in intonation. -This practice is useful because learners may often hear statements that they don't understand. -The echo questions is a way of getting clarification and/or confirmation. EXAMPLE: STUDENT A: She ate fast food with her parents one month ago STUDENT B: One month ago? STUDENT A: Yes, One month ago. STUDENT A: She is really happy today STUDENT B: Is she?
  • 12. Requires more careful listening by the students More difficult T: Do you have a car? S: Do you have a car? T: A computer. S: Do you have a computer?
  • 13. • A more demanding type of substitution practice requires students to make their own response based on a pattern already taught. * T: Your uniform is dirty. C: Cleaned S: Yes, I am going to cleaned tomorrow T: your hair is getting very long. C: Cut. S: yes, I am going to get it cut tomorrow.
  • 14. • Subtitution practice can be carried out in four-line dialogues. Simple model in a situation Student A: I really think that Carnival of Ambato is great! Student B: Really? I don’t think so! Student A: What do you prefer? Student B: I prefer Guaranda’s Carnival. Substituting the underlined words with the following items: Mama Negra Carnival Christmas 24 de Mayo Holy week Halloween 9 de Octubre Fiestas de Quito
  • 15. • This exercise is useful practice in using relative pronouns (who. whose., etc.) Cue: An athlete won a gold medal. He is Russian. Response: The athlete who won a gold medal is Russian. Cue: He is a neighbor. His wife is a ballet dancer. Responce: He`s the neighbor whose wife is a ballet dancer.
  • 16. • Combining sentences involves using language artificially, it’s important to make drills as meaningful as possible by using context. T: Nicolas Lapenti plays basket. R: No, he doesn`t. He plays tennis. T: Ecuadorians play baseball. R: No, they don`t. They play soccer.
  • 17. Phrase or sentence causes difficulty Pronunciation or length
  • 18. Example: • If I`d known you were here, I wouldn`t have gone away. T: If I`d known S: If I`d known T: you were here S: you were here T: I wouldn`t have gone away. S: I wouldn`t have gone away
  • 19. Forward chaining • It´s advisable to divide the sentence into sense-groups and not odd words to make for easier pronunciation and to help the students´ memory. Another Example: 1. “I´m a teacher but I´d rather be a model” 2. “She´s a teacher, but she´d rather be a model” 3. “I´m a student, but I´d rather be a singer”
  • 20. Developing Oral Fluency Oral fluency is a measure of how well and how easily you can communicate your ideas clearly and accurately in speech.
  • 21. • Activities: -Choose high-interest topics: free- speaking activities. - Pre-teach: vocabulary, structures and functions. -Stimulate interest: Use visuals, personalize the topic. -Give students time to think and prepare:time to decide
  • 22. -Set the scene for disscussion: Face to face interaction. -Make a participation plan: all student participate. -Organize a time: not much time. -Make a recording: Audiocassete or video.
  • 23. Types of Fluency Activities Warm –up activities and icebreaks: Interview. Drama Activities: role play and simulation Games: Don’t worry so much about how to speak. Role-play cards: speak about specific situation or problems • Your partner wants you to come out tonight but you don’t want to. Make excuses why you can not go out tonight. • You are having a party tonight for your friend. It is a surprise party so you can not tell your partner why they need to come. Convince you partner to come to the party.
  • 24. -Information gap activities: student talk with another and exchange what they know. Plan Vacation: Collect information. Find Out Information: Find information to answer the question
  • 25. • Make an Appoiment: combine the tasks
  • 26. • Pronunciation: An information gap activitie Practice pronuncition Student A: Could you tell me how to get to Jane’s Jeans Shopp? Student B: Jean’s Shop. Sure. You go down… Student A: No, no. Jane’s Shope. That’s J-A-N-E Student B: Oh, Jane’s. Yes. Go east down Chip Street to Chid Street and turn left. Walk up Chid Street until it turns into Chitties Street and make a left at Ship Street. Walk down Ship Street. Jane’s Jeans Shop is near the corner of Ship and Sheet Street Student B: Which Corner?....
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