Singapore History By Talha Lodhi

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1. SINGAPORE HISTORY 2. SEQUENCE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH RULE…
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  • 1. SINGAPORE HISTORY
  • 2. SEQUENCE <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH RULE </li></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGES FOR NEW BORN STATE </li></ul><ul><li>REMEDIES BY PAP </li></ul>
  • 3. Singapore -- Little City state where change is the constant
  • 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Ancient name -- Singapura </li></ul><ul><li>Once a part of Muslim &quot;Malaccan Sultanate&quot;. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malacca was considered to be a thriving centre of Islamic teaching in 14th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An important trade route. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trade route being &quot; Euorpe-Indonesia- China&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spices, Common denominator of Singaporean trade in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese took over Singapura by force, exerting control on trade route. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch soon followed in, establishing their domination. </li></ul><ul><li>An Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britishers got whatever came north of Malaca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch the south of Malaca. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. BRITISH RULE <ul><li>1819, Sir Stanford Raffles, founder of modern Singapore, led Britishers into the region. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave the region its first constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted the right of natives over the resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a ‘Court of Settlement’. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historic Records state that upon Sir Raffles arrival in the region, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 500 inhabitants, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the time of his departure, inhabitants at 8000, of which 5000 as traders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Indians migrated to the region. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Britishers, purposely did not make any undue effort to change the existing social and cultural system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To suit their economic benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cont’d… </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>British rule emanated from their universal policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating divide between the different ethnicities living in Singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Rationalization, the basis of British Rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat in WW II, at the hands of Japanese, brought an abrupt end to British rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of Japan in 1945 resulted in re-possesion of Singaporean control in the hands of Britain, only to handover the governance to its natives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial end coming to end world over. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singapore merged with Malaysia in 1959 to form a federation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For any port without a land is neither economically feasible nor viable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported owing to lack of confidence in survival of a loner city-state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cont’d… </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Merger turned foul in ’65, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore forcibly separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysian Parliament voting it out. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial politics played a pivotal role in souring the relationship between the leadership of the two states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation not consented by of any of mainstream leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Yusuf Ishaq asked Lee Kaun Yew of PAP to take charge as Prime Minister. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. CHALLENGES FOR NEW BORN STATE <ul><li>The greatest challenge as S.Rajaratnam put it in 1967 was “ How to covert a society of transient immigrants into a community of citizens?” </li></ul><ul><li>Plagued with menace of gambling, secret societies, and powerful rogue organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-ethnic state. </li></ul><ul><li>No natural resources. </li></ul>
  • 9. REMEDIES BY PAP <ul><li>Peoples Action Party promised to deliver good governance and development of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Malayans pushed into a backseat role, in the first few years of the government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason; Avoidance in pitching a Malaysian Malay against a Singaporean Malay. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The foundational pillars of the new state as laid down by Lee Kaun Yew and his team were; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meritocracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-racialism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernity. </li></ul></ul>
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