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1. This page intentionally left blank 2. Copyright © 2004, 1990, 1985, NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers…
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  • 2. Copyright © 2004, 1990, 1985, NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by NewAge International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEWAGE INTERNATIONAL(P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24,Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2488-1
  • 3. In loving memory of my revered father (The fountain of inspiration)
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  • 5. Preface to the Second Edition vii Preface to the Second Edition I feel encouraged by the widespread response from teachers and students alike to the first edition. I am presenting this second edition, thoroughly revised and enlarged, to my readers in all humbleness. All possible efforts have been made to enhance further the usefulness of the book. The feedback received from different sources has been incorporated. In this edition a new chapter on “The Computer: Its role in Research” have been added in view of the fact that electronic computers by now, for students of economics, management and other social sciences, constitute an indispensable part of research equipment. The other highlights of this revised edition are (i) the subject contents has been developed, refined and restructured at several points, (ii) several new problems have also been added at the end of various chapters for the benefit of students, and (iii) every page of the book has been read very carefully so as to improve its quality. I am grateful to all those who have helped me directly and/or indirectly in preparing this revised edition. I firmly believe that there is always scope for improvement and accordingly I shall look forward to received suggestions, (which shall be thankfully acknowledged) for further enriching the quality of the text. Jaipur C.R. KOTHARI May 1990
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  • 7. Preface to the First Edition ix Preface to the First Edition Quite frequently these days people talk of research, both in academic institutions and outside. Several research studies are undertaken and accomplished year after year. But in most cases very little attention is paid to an important dimension relaing to research, namely, that of research methodology. The result is that much of research, particularly in social sciences, contains endless word-spinning and too many quotations. Thus a great deal of research tends to be futile. It may be noted, in the context of planning and development, that the significance of research lies in its quality and not in quantity. The need, therefore, is for those concerned with research to pay due attention to designing and adhering to the appropriate methodology throughout for improving the quality of research. The methodology may differ from problem to problem, yet the basic approach towards research remains the same. Keeping all this in view, the present book has been written with two clear objectives, viz., (i) to enable researchers, irrespective of their discipline, in developing the most appropriate methodology for their research studies; and (ii) to make them familiar with the art of using different research- methods and techniques. It is hoped that the humble effort made in the form of this book will assist in the accomplishment of exploratory as well as result-oriented research studies. Regarding the organization, the book consists of fourteen chapters, well arranged in a coherent manner. Chapter One is an introduction, presenting an overview of the research methodology. Chapter Two explains the technique of defining a research problem. Chapter Three dwells on various research designs, highlighting their main characteristics. Chapter Four presents the details of several sampling designs. Different measurement and scaling techniques, along with multidimensional scaling, have been lucidly described in Chapter Five. Chapter Six presents a comparative study of the different methods of data collection. It also provides in its appendices guidelines for successful interviewing as well as for constructing questionnaire/schedules. Chapter Seven deals with processing and analysis of data. Sampling fundamentals, along with the theory of estimation, constitutes the subject-matter of Chapter Eight. Chapter Nine has been exclusively devoted to several parametric tests of hypotheses, followed by Chapter Ten concerning Chi-square test. In Chapter Eleven important features of ANOVA and ANOCOVA techniques have been explained and illustrated. Important non-parametric tests, generally used by researchers have been described and illustrated in Chapter Twelve. In Chapter Thirteen, an effort has been made to present the conceptual aspects and circumstances under which
  • 8. x Preface to the First Edition various multivariate techniques can appropriate be utilized in research studies, specially in behavioural and social sciences. Factor analysis has been dealt with in relatively more detail. Chapter Fourteen has been devoted to the task of interpretation and the art of writing research reports. The book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook for graduate and M.Phil. students of Research Methodology in all disciplines of various universities. It is hoped that the book shall provide guidelines to all interested in research studies of one sort or the other. The book is, in fact, an outgrowth of my experience of teaching the subject to M.Phil. students for the last several years. I am highly indebted to my students and learned colleagues in the Department for providing the necessary stimulus for writing this book. I am grateful to all those persons whose writings and works have helped me in the preparation of this book. I am equally grateful to the reviewer of the manuscript of this book who made extremely valuable suggestions and has thus contributed in enhancing the standard of the book. I thankfully acknowledge the assistance provided by the University Grants Commission in the form of ‘on account’ grant in the preparation of the manuscript of this book. I shall feel amply rewarded if the book proves helpful in the development of genuine research studies. I look forward to suggestions from all readers, specially from experienced researchers and scholars for further improving the subject content as well as the presentation of this book. C.R. KOTHARI
  • 9. Contents xi Contents Preface to the Second Edition vii Preface to the First Edition ix 1. Research Methodology: An Introduction 1 Meaning of Research 1 Objectives of Research 2 Motivation in Research 2 Types of Research 2 Research Approaches 5 Significance of Research 5 Research Methods versus Methodology 7 Research and Scientific Method 9 Importance of Knowing How Research is Done 10 Research Process 10 Criteria of Good Research 20 Problems Encountered by Researchers in India 21 2. Defining the Research Problem 24 What is a Research Problem? 24 Selecting the Problem 25 Necessity of Defining the Problem 26 Technique Involved in Defining a Problem 27 An Illustration 29 Conclusion 29 3. Research Design 31 Meaning of Research Design 31 Need for Research Design 32
  • 10. xii Research Methodology Features of a Good Design 33 Important Concepts Relating to Research Design 33 Different Research Designs 35 Basic Principles of Experimental Designs 39 Conclusion 52 Appendix Developing a Research Plan 53 4. Sampling Design 55 Census and Sample Survey 55 Implications of a Sample Design 55 Steps in Sampling Design 56 Criteria of Selecting a Sampling Procedure 57 Characteristics of a Good Sample Design 58 Different Types of Sample Designs 58 How to Select a Random Sample? 60 Random Sample from an Infinite Universe 61 Complex Random Sampling Designs 62 Conclusion 67 5. Measurement and Scaling Techniques 69 Measurement in Research 69 Measurement Scales 71 Sources of Error in Measurement 72 Tests of Sound Measurement 73 Technique of Developing Measurement Tools 75 Scaling 76 Meaning of Scaling 76 Scale Classification Bases 77 Important Scaling Techniques 78 Scale Construction Techniques 82 6. Methods of Data Collection 95 Collection of Primary Data 95 Observation Method 96 Interview Method 97 Collection of Data through Questionnaires 100 Collection of Data through Schedules 104 Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules 104 Some Other Methods of Data Collection 106 Collection of Secondary Data 111
  • 11. Contents xiii Selection of Appropriate Method for Data Collection 112 Case Study Method 113 Appendices (i) Guidelines for Constructing Questionnaire/Schedule 118 (ii) Guidelines for Successful Interviewing 119 (iii) Difference between Survey and Experiment 120 7. Processing and Analysis of Data 122 Processing Operations 122 Some Problems in Processing 129 Elements/Types of Analysis 130 Statistics in Research 131 Measures of Central Tendency 132 Measures of Dispersion 134 Measures of Asymmetry (Skewness) 136 Measures of Relationship 138 Simple Regression Analysis 141 Multiple Correlation and Regression 142 Partial Correlation 143 Association in Case of Attributes 144 Other Measures 147 Appendix: Summary Chart Concerning Analysis of Data 151 8. Sampling Fundamentals 152 Need for Sampling 152 Some Fundamental Definitions 152 Important Sampling Distributions 155 Central Limit Theorem 157 Sampling Theory 158 Sandler’s A-test 162 Concept of Standard Error 163 Estimation 167 Estimating the Population Mean ( )µ 168 Estimating Population Proportion 172 Sample Size and its Determination 174 Determination of Sample Size through the Approach Based on Precision Rate and Confidence Level 175 Determination of Sample Size through the Approach Based on Bayesian Statistics 180
  • 12. xiv Research Methodology 9. Testing of Hypotheses-I (Parametric or 184 Standard Tests of Hypotheses) What is a Hypothesis? 184 Basic Concepts Concerning Testing of Hypotheses 185 Procedure for Hypothesis Testing 191 Flow Diagram for Hypothesis Testing 192 Measuring the Power of a Hypothesis Test 193 Tests of Hypotheses 195 Important Parametric Tests 195 Hypothesis Testing of Means 197 Hypothesis Testing for Differences between Means 207 Hypothesis Testing for Comparing Two Related Samples 214 Hypothesis Testing of Proportions 218 Hypothesis Testing for Difference between Proportions 220 Hypothesis Testing for Comparing a Variance to Some Hypothesized Population Variance 224 Testing the Equality of Variances of Two Normal Populations 225 Hypothesis Testing of Correlation Coefficients 228 Limitations of the Tests of Hypotheses 229 10. Chi-square Test 233 Chi-square as a Test for Comparing Variance 233 Chi-square as a Non-parametric Test 236 Conditions for the Application of χ2 Test 238 Steps Involved in Applying Chi-square Test 238 Alternative Formula 246 Yates’ Correction 246 Conversion of χ2 into Phi Coefficient 249 Conversion of χ2 into Coefficient by Contingency 250 Important Characteristics of χ2 Test 250 Caution in Using χ2 Test 250 11. Analysis of Variance and Covariance 256 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 256 What is ANOVA? 256 The Basic Principle of ANOVA 257 ANOVA Technique 258 Setting up Analysis of Variance Table 259 Short-cut Method for One-way ANOVA 260 Coding Method 261 Two-way ANOVA 264
  • 13. Contents xv ANOVA in Latin-Square Design 271 Analysis of Co-variance (ANOCOVA) 275 ANOCOVA Technique 275 Assumptions in ANOCOVA 276 12. Testing of Hypotheses-II 283 (Nonparametric or Distribution-free Tests) Important Nonparametric or Distribution-free Test 284 Relationship between Spearman’s r’s and Kendall’s W 310 Characteristics of Distribution-free or Non-parametric Tests 311 Conclusion 313 13. Multivariate Analysis Techniques 315 Growth of Multivariate Techniques 315 Characteristics and Applications 316 Classification of Multivariate Techniques 316 Variables in Multivariate Analysis 318 Important Multivariate Techniques 318 Important Methods of Factor Analysis 323 Rotation in Factor Analysis 335 R-type and Q-type Factor Analyses 336 Path Analysis 339 Conclusion 340 Appendix: Summary Chart: Showing the Appropriateness of a Particular Multivariate Technique 343 14. Interpretation and Report Writing 344 Meaning of Interpretation 344 Why Interpretation? 344 Technique of Interpretation: 345 Precaution in Interpretation 345 Significance of Report Writing 346 Different Steps in Writing Report 347 Layout of the Research Report 348 Types of Reports 351 Oral Presentation 353 Mechanics of Writing a Research Report 353 Precautions for Writing Research Reports 358 Conclusions 359
  • 14. xvi Research Methodology 15. The Computer: Its Role in Research 361 Introduction 361 The Computer and Computer Technology 361 The Computer System 363 Important Characteristics 364 The Binary Number System 365 Computer Applications 370 Computers and Researcher 371 Appendix—Selected Statistical Tables 375 Selected References and Recommended Readings 390 Author Index 395 Subject Index 398
  • 15. Research Methodology: An Introduction 1 1 Research Methodology: An Introduction MEANING OF RESEARCH Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”1 Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”2 Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”3 Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalisation and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method 1 The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1952, p. 1069. 2 L.V. Redman and A.V.H. Mory, The Romance of Research, 1923, p.10. 3 The Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, Vol. IX, MacMillan, 1930.
  • 16. 2 Research Methodology consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analysing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalisations for some theoretical formulation. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: 1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies). MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; 4. Desire to be of service to society; 5. Desire to get respectability. However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research operations. TYPES OF RESEARCH The basic types of research are as follows: (i) Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite often use
  • 17. Research Methodology: An Introduction 3 the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. (ii) Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediateproblemfacingasocietyoranindustrial/businessorganisation,whereasfundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory. “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.”4 Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research. Similarly, research studies, concerning human behaviour carried on with a view to make generalisations
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