Research 2

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Research 2
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   Critical Discourse Analysis 2013 1 Sana Nawaz Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-301-679-1110 E-mail: anayakhan35@yahoo.com Zeeshan Haider Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-323-613-5847 E-mail:shanihaider95 @gmail.com Muhammad Usman Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-343-415-8988 E-mail:usmanzaifi@gmail.com  Abdul Rauf Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-347-422-7994 E-mail: ghulamrazasgd@gmail.com Ghulam Raza Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-301-584-1812 E-mail: ghulamrazasgd@gmail.com Junaid Anwar Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Tel: 92-321-603-5492 E-mail: ghulamrazasgd@gmail.com Seemab Hussain Sherazi Department of English, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan   Critical Discourse Analysis 2013 2 Ideological Analysis of Martial Law Imposers   Abstract:- This article aims at exploring the reasons of dictators after their arival and implementation of martial law. Everyone has against dictatorship earlier or later because its failure in the world. When dictatorship is consider curse then, what are those reasons that martial law has been imposed in our country in different intervals of last fifty years what were those reasons and excuses of dictators through which they defend themselves in front of nation, reasons of martial law and dictator defending of some questions which are in the mind of people. We are trying to answer all those questions and reasons through the analysis of dictator’s speeches by applying Ven Dijk’s socio -cognative model. Introduction Language is the medium of communication and expression. If language does not exist, it is very difficult to convey our thoughts, feelings and emotions to others. The role of language in a society is much evident and vital because language, being a form of social practice, is a means  by which power-relations and society are reproduced or contested (Janks , 1997) Language live and flourish on account of their roles to perform in the society, otherwise it  becomes superfluous, language used by different speakers has many functions to perform, the main function is "the expression and persuasive communication of opinions".(Ven Dijk, 1996,p.3). It also helps to construct the ideological stance on certain issues present in the society. Human language is unique because it has properties of productivity, recursitivity and displacement, and learning. Its complex structure therefore affords a much wider range of  possible expressions uses then any known system of animal communication. Thus language  plays an important role, in expressing our thoughts and feelings. Critical Discourse Analysis: "Critical discourse analysis, is the uncovering of implicit ideologies in the texts. It unveils the underplaying ideological prejudices and therefore exercise of power in texts"(Widdson , 2000). Critical discourse analysis is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in social and political context. Some of the tents of CDA can already be found in critical theory of the Frankfurt school before the Second World War (Agger 1926, Rasmussen 1996). Its current focused on the language and discourse was initiated with the "critical language" that emerged at the end of 1970s. CDA has also counterparts in "critical" development in   Critical Discourse Analysis 2013 3 sociolinguistics, psychology and social sciences.Crucial for critical discourse analysts in explicit awareness of their role in society. Containing the traditions that rejects the possibility of "value-free" science, they argue that science, and especially scholarly discourse, are inherent part of and social interaction. Theory formation, description and explanation, also in discourse analysis are socio-politically "situated", whether we like it or not critical research on discourse needs to satisfy number of requirements in order to effectively realize its aims: (I) As is often the case for more marginal research traditions, CDA research has to be better than other research in order to be accepted. (ii) It focuses primarily on social problems in usually multidisciplinary. (iii) Rather than merely describe structure, it tries to explain them in term of properties of social interaction and epically social structure. (iv) More specifically, CDA focuses on the ways discourse structure enacts, relation of power and dominance in society. Fairclough and Wodak (1997:271-80) summarize the tenants of CDA as follows. (1) CDA addresses social problems. (2) Power relation is discursive. (3)Discourse constitutes society and culture. (4)Discourse does ideological work. (5)Discourse is historical. (6)The link between text and society is mediated. (7)Discourse analysis is interpretive and explanatory. (8)Discourse is a farm of social action where as some of these tenants have also been discussed above, other needs a more systematic theoretical analysis, of which we shall present some fragments here as a more or less general basis for the main principals of CDA.(For detailed about these aims of critical discourse and language studies, see, fair clough and Wodak 1997; Fowler et al 1999; Van Dijk 1993b). Ideological analysis: Before going on ideological analysis direct we should know the term ideology as a definition and as a whole. There are many definitions of ideology given by my many authors. Ideology is "set of beliefs" to   Critical Discourse Analysis 2013 4 which behavior of an individual or of group is based. Ideology is "primarily some kind of ideas that is belief system"(Van Dijk art). Ideologies are the basic frame work of social cognition, shared by members of social groups, constituted by relevant select of members of social group, constituted by relevant selection by sociocultural values and organized by an ideological schema that represent the self definition group. People in society always share their beliefs and there is no such situation that a man have a belief system but he do not share his belief with other members of society. So people sharing mutual  belief makes a group , A group which have same ideology and this ideology defines the group. As Van Dijk says, "ideology defines the social identity of a group that is its shared belief about its fundamental conditions and ways of existence and reproduction"(Van Dijk. Ideology and Discourse Analysis, 2006). As ideology is shared by people of society in the same way the attitudes based on an ideology is also shared by society. All the actions and attitude about, "peculiar subject matter is the consequence of one's own ideology. Ideology act as a major stimulus of an actor (a person, having a specific ideology) for his/her action, attitude towards specific matter of discussion. “ A racist ideology may control attitudes about immigration, a feminist ideology may control attitudes about abortion or about gender inequality in society, and a social ideology may favor a more important role of the state in public affairs". (Van Dijk. Ideology and Discourse Analysis, 2006). As ideology have been described as fundamentals beliefs which are the basis of joined social representation of any specific groups. It is very true when we say that ideology of a certain specific groups is expressed and could be located through groups discourse no matter it is spoken or written. So groups discourse could be termed as "ideological discourse". “ When group members explain, motivate or legitimate their (group based) action they typically do so in terms of ideological discourse ”. (Van Dijk. Ideology and Discourse Analysis, 2006). Political background: Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis. Martial law is usually imposed on a temporary basis when civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively (e.g., maintain order and security, or provide essential services), when there are extensive riots and protests, or when disobedience of law becomes widespread. Martial law can be seed by government to enforce their rules over the public.   Critical Discourse Analysis 2013 5 Martial law has also been imposed during conflicts and in cases of occupations, where the absence of any other civil government provides for an unstable population. Martial law has been declared in Pakistan five times, On October 1956; president Iskander Mirza imposed martial law and appointed General Muhammad Ayub Khan as chief martial law administrator. At that time technocracy was unsuited to Pakistan "with its 15% literacy rate". The second Martial law was imposed on 25March 1958, When present Ayub Khan abrogated the constitution of 1962 and handed over the power to the Army Commander-in-chief, General Agfa Muhammad Yahya Khan on assuming popular demands by abolishing the one unit system in west Pakistan and ordered general election on the principal of one man one vote. Then in July 5, 1977, Martial law was imposed by General Zia-ul-haq. At that time, unstable areas were  brought under control through indirect military actions, such as Baluchistan under Martial law Governor, General Rahimuddin Khan. Then in October 12, 1999, General Pervaiz Mushraf imposed Martial law due to the weakness of the economy of Pakistan. Van Dijk Framework for Media Discourse:- As Van Dijk is the most referred linguist in the field of media discourse; we would follow his instructions regarding our research. He started applying his media discourse theory in 1980s, focusing on minorities and ethnic groups. What distinguishes Van Dijk (1988) framework for the analysis of news discourse is his call for a thorough analysis not only of the textual and structural level of media discourse but also for the analysis and explanations, at the production and "reception" or comprehension level (Boyd-Barrett, 1994). By production of the reception process Van Dijk means journalistic and institutional practices of News making and the economic and social practices, which not only play important roles in the creation of media discourse but which can be explicitly related to the structures of Media discourse (Sheyholislm, p.5). Van Dijk also views discourse analysis as ideological analysis, and it is the main tent of his framework; language gives the meaning and meaning can be analyzed by discourse analysis and this framework of ideology analysis helps to analyze the language of newspaper editorials and their underlying meanings, either politicalor social. We would use his model provided for the ideological analysis in media discourse studies to find out the the ideology present in spoken discourse of three dictators of Pakistan (Zia-ul-Haq, Pervaiz Musharaf, Yahya Khan). These three persons had imposed martial law at three different times. When these very three persons overtake the government they gave their speeches as to  justify this offence. We are going to pick out the reasons from their speeches through ideological analysis by applying Van Dijk’s frame work.  We will do this by    Examining context of discourse, political and historical background of discourse.    Examine group relations (Army vs. Government), (Army vs. Public).    Describing thematic and semantic level of meanings.    Examining the formal structures (laxico-syntatic structure) and strategy of group of  positive self-representation and negative other-representations.
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