Problems of the Modern Society: from the experience of 3.11 disaster

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1. Problems of Modern Society:from the experience of 3.11 Earthquake Kousuke Kikuchi Doctorate Student kousukekikuchi@toki.waseda.jp Department of Architecture Graduate…
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  • 1. Problems of Modern Society:from the experience of 3.11 Earthquake Kousuke Kikuchi Doctorate Student kousukekikuchi@toki.waseda.jp Department of Architecture Graduate School of Science and Engineering Waseda University
  • 2. Outline of this Lecture Introduction Summary of the Disaster Problems of the Modern Society The Summary of the Lecture The Future Vision learned by the Disaster 2
  • 3. Introduction born in Aomori live in TokyoKousuke KIKUCHIborn in Hachinohe-shi, Aomori Prefecture at March 12, 1984live in Hino-shi, Tokyo2010-present: Doctorate Student in Architecture, Waseda University2007~2009: Master Degree in Architecture, Waseda University2002~2007: Bachelor Degree in Architecture, Waseda UniversityPrograming Language: Ruby, C++, Processing, javascriptHardware: Circuit Design, ArduinoInterests: Algorithmic Design, Digital Fabrication, Sensing, Visualization, Media Art 3
  • 4. Introduction What is the definition of “Disaster?”a sudden event, such as an accident or a natural catastrophe, that causes greatdamage or loss of life - New Oxford American DictionaryDisaster would happen whenever and wherever. 4
  • 5. Introduction The Purpose of this Lecture1. Illustrates the summary of the Great East Japan Earthquake2. Indicates the future urban design and social system from the experience of thedisaster. 5
  • 6. The Summary of the Disaster Earthquake March 11, 2011 at 2:46 pm(JST) Magnitude: 9.0 Depth of Epicenter: 24km Max Seismic Intensity: 7 Seismic Intensity in Tokyo: 5+ Death and Missing: 19868 people The Estimated Damage: 25trillion yen ($320million) without Nuclear Disaster ( c.f. Paraguay GDP: $33billion )Seismic Intensity from Japanese Meteological Agency 6
  • 7. The Summary of the Disaster Tsunami Maximum Tsunami: unknown estimated 16.3m Maximum Runup Hight: 40.5m ( c.f. Asuncíon: 43m) Wetted Surface Area: 561km2 ( c.f. Asuncíon: 117km2) 7
  • 8. The Summary of the Disaster Radiation Contamination NIES Level 7 (Major Accident) Iodine(Es: Yodo): 1.5*10^17Bq 39g Half-life: 8 days Cause thyroid cancer Cesium(Es: Cesio): 1.3*10^16Bq 4658g Half-life: 30 Years Increase the risk of cancer Due to Westerlies, almost radio actives flowed above the Pacific Ocean, and were diluted with harmless level. 8
  • 9. The Summary of the DisasterSoil Liquefaction (Es: Licuefaccíon) a phenomenon that soft gland behaves as if it is like a liquid in Earthquake. Building and Infrastructure sinked and severely damaged as the soft gland became liquid. area: 42km^2 (c.f. Asuncíon: 117km^2) the largest area in the world 9
  • 10. The Summary of the DisasterCommuters unable to get home in Tokyo Commuters in Tokyo go to work or to study by getting on 70-minutes train. Yet, the disaster made the train suspended. Above 100,000 people did not get home within 24 hours. I also was the person who could not get home in March 11. 10
  • 11. The Summary of the Disaster Petrochemical Complex Explosion of petrochemical complex arose from the earthquake. The friction between oil and tank during the vibration merged the heat, and finally oil was combusted spontaneously. Six petrochemical complexes were exploded completely.Explosion of Petrochemical Complex at Ichihara, Chiba 11
  • 12. The Summary of the DisasterThe Damage to ArchitectureSendai Mediatheque, designed by Toyo ITONo damage to architectural structure. But suspended ceiling fell in 7th flour.Sendai Mediatheque will be reopened at January 27, 2012. 12
  • 13. The Summary of the DisasterThe Damage to ArchitectureKudan Kaikan, Historical Architecture in JapanCeiling falling caused 2 deaths and above 20 injuries. 13
  • 14. The Summary of the DisasterThe Damage to ArchitectureMiraikan, Kume SekkeiCeiling fell at the second earthquake.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2Pu7dzLSRQMiraikan has changed the material of ceiling harmless to human at earthquake. 14
  • 15. The Summary of the DisasterThe Damage to Architecture Summary: The structure of architecture almost endured the terrible earthquake. The equipment and furniture in architecture might injure people because Japanese Government has no regulation on equipment and furniture. However, causalities due to the earthquake itself were very low. They were died because of massive Tsunami. 15
  • 16. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection• Commuters• Supply Chain ManagementRisk Communication• Earthquake• Tsunami• Nuclear Disaster 16
  • 17. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Commuters Population in Tokyo: 13 million people People in Greater Tokyo Area: 30 million people Why does Tokyo has many People? Greater Tokyo Area People in Tokyo Commute with train 17
  • 18. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - CommutersIncipient Urban Planning in Japan Kyoto, Heiankyo, 794 A.C Traditional Grid System in Kyoto 18
  • 19. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - CommutersNaikaibo Tenkai Spiral System in Tokyo The problem in Kyoto was that Kyoto did not expand city. On the other hand, Tenkai ( ) designed Edo as spiral to expand easily. His urban design philosophy enable Edo, Tokyo, the biggest city in the world for about 400 years. 19
  • 20. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Commuters 20
  • 21. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Commuters © 2010 CHIRI Geographic Information Service Co.,Ltd. All Rights Reserved. 21
  • 22. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - CommutersProblems:•Tokyo is too big and too complexed to re-consider the urban planning.•No one know the minutiae of people where to go and where come from because of the complexity.•At the time of a disaster such as earthquake and Typhoon, we never get home easily. From my experience, it took 24 hours to get home at the earthquake, and took 8 hours at Typhoon which hit Tokyo in the midst of September.•The 50km of commuting exhausts amount of energy.•The reason of urban sprawl is no master planning in Tokyo. Also, developers accelerates the trend to make their profit.•However, the high population and the biggest area in Greater Tokyo Area has bolstered the economic growth in Japan. 22
  • 23. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Supply Chain ManagementTohoku Area is economically retarded area. Tohoku has only 6% of Japan GDP.However, this disaster causes crucial influences to manufacture companies in theworld. 23
  • 24. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management is a flow of a production from material to customer.To reduce the cost and the risk at assembling the products, many companies haveoutsourced products. Without only one parts, company does not produce theproducts. Outsourcing was once thought as decreasing the risk because assemblycompany does not responsibility of a parts. 24
  • 25. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Supply Chain ManagementThe reason is the Collapse of Supply Chain Management.Tohoku has a number of High-Tech Plants such as GPS chip, material of semi-conductor. The Earthquake devastated these plants. Almost GPS chip for car wasproduced and 60% of wafer was produced in Japan. However, No one canunderstand the supply chain management increased the risk before the earthquake. 25
  • 26. The Problems of Modern SocietyInvisible Connection - Supply Chain ManagementProblems:•Production system is highly complexed as if no one can understand the materials comes from and where the products go.•The reason to reduce the risk by using Supply Chain Management is that company has no risk on the production of parts. However, the earthquake elucidated that the Supply Chain Management will increase the risk.•We have to understand where the product come from.•Of course, mass production can reduce the cost of a product. 26
  • 27. The Problems of Modern SocietyRisk CommunicationRisk Communication is a consensus building of risks between citizens andadministration, pundits and companies in the case of emergency, such as disaster,war, terrorism because in the emergency, local governments do not provide all theprotection to citizens.However, citizens never communicate about risks because they feel danger. Theyprefer 0% of risk exposure even though it never exist. 27
  • 28. The Problems of Modern SocietyRisk Communication -Earthquake This figure illustrates the risk mapping of massive earthquake in 30 years. for example: Tokyo: 70% in 30 years Shizuoka: 99% in 30 years However, real estate company has no duty to explain the risk because explaining the earthquake risk prevent customers from buying.Earthquake Hazard Map in 2010 28
  • 29. The Problems of Modern SocietyRisk Communication -TsunamiTaroucho , Iwate Prefecture has the biggest seawall (10m height) in theworld.Before the TsunamiMany people died due to the confidence that thegreat seawall protect them. The infrastructure notalways protect citizens. After the Tsunami 29
  • 30. The Problems of Modern SocietyRisk Communication -Nuclear DisasterNuclear Energy remains the important energy source in the world. But, once severeaccident occurs, radio actives will contaminate the vast area. Japanese Government did not sufficiently explain how to save our life in the case of accident because our government and electric companies will not construct nuclear power plant. Citizens think that explanation of keeping safe means the risk to do so in the future. 30
  • 31. The Problems of Modern SocietyRisk CommunicationSummary:•We can reduce the risk of an accident by proper equipments and proper communication between citizens and pundits.•Too stuff guard at disaster made them rely on the infrastructure and caused deaths.•Not only urban designers, architects, politicians, economists and companies but also citizens have to re-consider how to undertake and distribute the risk and the benefit. 31
  • 32. The Summary of this LectureSummary:•Urban designers, architects and politicians must control urban sprawl.•Urban designers should clarify the connection between cities in terms of commuting people and products.•We, the future builders, should communicate with citizens about the risk of emergency.•Too robust infrastructure system such as the strongest levee should be avoided because without risk communication citizens will have evacuated immediately. 32
  • 33. The Future Vision learned by the DisasterI introduce a competition, which was awarded Silver Medal, collaborating with myfriends in my lab. 33
  • 34. The Future Vision learned by the DisasterOur Focusing Problems:•People have to re-consider how to undertake and distribute the risk and the benefit.•It took long time to convey life-saving supplies to disaster area.•Disaster would occur whenever and wherever.Our Solution:Being familiar with manufacturing such as “Do It Yourself,“ “Do It With Others” canreduce the deaths due to coldness and severe injuries, and will improve the QualityOf Life in disaster area.•This social system impose slightly the responsibility to citizens.•Improvising the necessity in the disaster can take less time than transporting them.•We have to think about the revitalization from disaster quickly. 34
  • 35. The Future Vision learned by the DisasterMy doubt:Why do we convey so many corrugated cardboards to keep the privacy?Why do they make partitions themselves even though the recipe was opened?If the capacity of truck is limited, we should convey food instead of un-necessarycrates.If we are familiar with making goods, we can improvise these kinds of things! 35
  • 36. The Future Vision learned by the DisasterOther Advantage to Make:•Making and dissembling the products will be education for children because theycan understand the mechanism of the products.•Making and dissembling the products will vitalize the people because expressiondecreases the stress.•Making and dissembling the products will reduce trashes. The trashes will be usedmany times until breakdown.Also:•Internet enabled us to make almost everything.•Crowd service can backup our daily important data. 36
  • 37. The Future Vision learned by the Disaster 37
  • 38. The Future Vision learned by the Disaster 38
  • 39. The Future Vision learned by the Disaster THIS!! However... 39
  • 40. The Future Vision learned by the Disaster All groups from my Lab awarded, two groups were Gold Prize... 40
  • 41. Thank you for your time!Please Access mee-mail: kousukekikuchi@toki.waseda.jpFaceBook: http://www.facebook.com/KousukeKikuchiTwitter: @kousukekikuchiSlideShare: kousukekikuchiLink to this presentation:http://www.slideshare.net/kousukekikuchi/problems-of-the-modern-society-from-the-experience-of-311-disaster 41
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