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Myrthaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Meliaceae
  57 "A H B>@ 18(1), 2012:57-76   AtC ! !#ACu E3 047(*;6 +3 /<9(* D( :69 3( :;9<*;<9( @ *6476:0*0 (99( + < 6:8< 4(1(+6  <0;(( !66, M?0*6 #/ 047(*; 6- ;/ /<990*( D( 6 ;/ :;9<*;<9 (+ (969(3 *6476:0;06 6- ( 4((+ -69:; 0 <0;(( !66, M?0*6  AGXE OKKH-KMZGS 1* , ?E NKUG-#KZ 2 R KM XGS-#HGSUES 2 !E"$MEN HL NKGL LHG HGLKHL HFH NGH  EHL ?MHKL FUL MKFGGML  E LMKNMNKR HFIHL\G  FNHL HLJNL MKHIEL. !G NGMG HH, LMHL ?G\FGHL GMNKEL LHG MG?KNGML JN ?HKFG IKM  E GUF GMNKE E HLJN. !E 21  HLMH  2007, G E GMKH-LNK E !LMH, HNKK\ E NKUG G, JN ?M\ EKHK  900,000   E LEO FGLNIKGG?HE. !G LM LMNH L NGM?G EHL [HL HLHGHL LHK E OM\G R LGESG EHL FHL G E HFIHL\G  LIL R E LMKNMNK E HLJN ?MH IHK ENKUG G.  GHGMK\ JN E HFIHL\G E HLJN GH ?N ?M LG?MOFGM R JNE FRHK ?MH E NKUG ?N LHK E LMKNMNK E HLJN. HL UKHEL FUL [HL ?NKHG G-ONHL  LIL E LHMHHLJN. HL IKGIEL MIHL  [H ?NKHG LKFH, LGKSH RJNKH H KNIMNK E MKHGH. ALFLFH, LHL G ?NGML EHKU?L R ENGL HLKOHGLNKGM E MKH G FIH, L LNM E ?MH JN E IKHOFGMH ?HKLME IN MGK GNGMH  GKFGMK E LNLIME  LMHL HLJNL E [H IHK OGMH.  IKHIHG LFGNK EGM  UKL  HGGMK\G  FK (EEL) NKGM E QMK\G ?HKLME, LZ HFHGHKIHKK  EHL IEGL  FGH ?HKLME, E IKHOFGMH  UKHEL [HL JN H?KSGENG NME. FXG L IKHIHG E FHGMHKH  EKH IESH  E GUF  EHL HLJNL ?-MHL G KE\G HG EHL GH ?MHL IHK NKGL. AABA CA!:CHFIHL\G R LMKNMNK K\K, ZG  OEHK  FIHKMG, EO FG LNIKGG?HE. AB"#!AC# $NKKGL K HGLK FHG M FHLM FIHKMGM MKFGGML H? M LMKNMNK G HFIH-LMHG H? FGR MKHIE ?HKLML. G NGMG HH, ML GMNKE IGHFG K IKM H? M GMNKE RG-FL H? M ?HKLM. $NKKG G, HG H? M FHLM KGM H? ML PMK OGML HNKK HG ANNLM21, 2007, ??MG KHNG 900,000  H? FNF LF-OKKG ?HKLM.  F HNKK HG M1* ANMHK IK HKKLIHGG; !E CHEH  E "KHGMK NK, G CMNFE, AO. CGMGKH, DF. 5.5, C 77014, CMNFE, NGMG HH, XQH. ..: FGO@HLNK.FQ2 CGMKH  GOLM\G CGMZ?  NMUG, A. C., CEE 43, G^F. 130, HE. CNNKGU  $EH, C 97200,XK, NMUG, XQH. ..: KNKG@R.FQ, FK@R.FQ  58E; <?> ; AK= D= >A ; AA H ><?>O= AOA OMMHG PL JNGM? G GLG LIL HFIHLMHG G LMKNMNK H? M ?HKLM ??M R $NKKG GPK LNLL. M PL ?HNG MM MHFIHLMHG H? M ?HKLM PL GHM??M.  KMLM ??M H? M NKK-G PL HG M ?HKLM LMKNMNK.GKLMHKR MKL PL FHK FMM GHIR MKL.  FG MRIL H? F PK M LFEE G FNFKG F, NIKHHM G LGIIMKL. "HKLM FGFGM HNE OGKL M LNLIMEMR H? ML ?HKLM MHPG F.  ??ML H? ?HKLMFGFGM G M LNLIMEMR H? M?HKLM K LNLL L HG EHK-I G?HKFMHG G LHF HLKOMHGLNKG ?E LFIEG. M L IKHIHL MHKN M GNFK H? nPHH HGGMK-MHGo NKG EHG MOMR, L PEE L MHGHKIHKM MH FGFGM IEGL, MQMKMHG H? F MKL. M L ELHIKHIHL MH FHGMHK M EHG-MKF RG-FL HM H? F G NGF?HKLM R NKKGL.'! :K HFIHLMHG G LMKNMNK, FIHK-MG OEHK GQ, FNF LF-OK-KG ?HKLM. IN#!OD$CCIKN GH  EHL GML  LMNKH FUL?KNGML  FIHKMGML G EHL HLJNLMKHIEL LHG EHL NKGL, EHL NELING EMKK, G IHH MFIH, E LMKN-MNK R E GUF  EL HFNGL R EL IHEHGL OMEL R GFELJN G EEHL MG, LZ HFH OKLHLIKHLHL  EHL HLLMFL (DMM RM, 1985; NH, 2000). !E LMNKHIKHNH IHK NG NKUG ?M E GU-F GMNKE  EHL HLLMFL EIKHOHK NG GKFGMH G EL MLL FHKME, KENMFGMH R KFGMH EL IHEHGL JN EHL HFIHGG R,G HGLNG, ING FH?K LNHFIHL\G R LMKNMNK (HNL, 1984;LMK R EFLM, 2000), R EMKK EHLIKHLHL  NFNE\G R LHFIHL-\G  HFL ($KFHG  ;  ., 1991;F  ;. , 1991). !E FIMH LMHL LMNKHL LMU ?NKMFGM G?ENG-H, MGMH IHK EL KMKZLML  EOM\G GML E LMNKH (HFIHL-\G R MF[H  EHL UKHEL), HFH IHK E OEH E OGMH R E GM IKIM\G, FUL  E MHIHK?Z EENK R E QLMG  IKMNKL G EHLE (!OKF R BKHDP, 1996; LMK REFLM, 2000; CSHG, 2003). A GOEGONE, EHL ?MHL E NKUG INGIGK  EL KMKZLML IKHIL E LI, HFH E KJNMMNK EUKHE (GENRGH E IKH?NG RFIEMN  LNL KZL), E GL  LNFK, LN MF[H, LN KH  IM-\G  E HNKKG  LMHL ?G\FGHL,LZ HFH  E ?LHGHFZ E IKHG K E UKHE; LMH ^EMFH INLK FH?H IHK EL IKUML FGH ?HKLME (OL  ;  ., 2000; G  ;. , 2004, 2007; $KHF  ;. , 2009). HK LN N\G, E GZGLNE NMUG L ?M  ?HKF KM HGKM IHK FNHL  EHL NKGLJN L ?HKFG G E CK GME.  LMFH JN NKGM E IKHH 1871  1999,  EHL 154 EHGL JN L?HKFKHG G E XGH AMEUGMH R ECK, 45.3% G MHH MKKL JNGM-GKKHGLL ($KGUGS  ;. , 2001). !ENKUG #EKMH (G 1988) R E NKUGEF (G 2005) ?MKHG LOKFGME K\G GHKM E LMH, G MGMH JN EHQG (G1995) R FUL KGMFGM EG (G 2007) ILKHG IHK E LNK  EIGZGLNE MHGH MKK  E EMNK G 'qG R, G CFI, IHK CEDFNE, IKHOHGH FIHKMGML [HLFMKEL G EL SHGL NKGL, E K-NEMNK R EHL HLLMFL. !E NKUG G,  MHKZ 5 GE LE  ??K-FILHG, MH\ MKKJNGMGKKHGL E 21  HLMH  2007,HG OGMHL LHLMGHL LM  270DF/, ?MGH NG LNIK? 917,935   LEO FG LNIKG-G?HE (26,2%  E LNIK? ?HKLMELMME) (#HKGH E !LMH  NG-  59"A H B>@ 18(1), 2012:57-76  MG HH, 2007), G HGLNG L OH?MH E UMM  NG KG OKL IEGML R GFEL, ENGL  EELGXFL  E GZGLNE  NMUG RHMKL H ENG MHKZ  KLH.HL HLLMFL IKLGMG NG EKLMHK  IKHOFGMH ?HKLME, EKHK  300 [HL (OKKH, 2011),LGH E H ( F= <A>?H;; 'G) E LI FUL IKHO. ANGJN E EMKMNK LHK EHL ?MHL NKGL G E OM\G  EHLHLJNL MKHIEL L QMGL, LMHLLIMHL G LH IHH LMNHL IKE K\G  LMNH,  ILK  E EMHNKKG  NKGL (F  ;  .,1991; UGS  LE, 1999; LMK REFLM, 2000; DGLHG  ;. , 2001;#KKH  ;  ., 2008; GK  ;. ,2011). !LMHL LIMHL LHG FIHKMGML HGLKK IHKJN E IKHOFGMH?HKLME IN GKFGMK E ONEGK-E  E LEO  EHL ?MHL E OGMHIHK E NFGMH G E G^FKH R MF[H EHL EKHL R EHL FHL G E GL GONHL  EL LIL QMKZL,HGMK HG H HGHFGMH IKFMKZK LNKGL IK E FHK IEG-\G  EL IKUML  FGH ?HKLME. OBJE#I%O" !E HMOH IKGIE  LM LMNH ?NOENK EHL ?MHL E NKUG GLHK E LMKNMNK R HFIHL\G LIL K\KL G NG HLJN MKHIEH FGH ?HKLME G E SHG GMKH-LNK E LMH  NGMG HH. H JN LHGM HG G?HKF\G IKO EFIMH E NKUG, L INKHG GESK EHL FHL G E HFIHL\G  LI-L K\KL R G E LMKNMNK EHLJN ?MH IHK E NKUG G. AFUL, L OEN\ E ?MH E FGH?HKLME LHK E LNLIME EHLJN GM E FIMH  NKUG, HGL G G?HKF\G EHKU? LIH-GE R ENGL HLKOHGL NKGM EMKH  FIH. ME#ODOLOGA9( + :;<+06 !E IKLGM LMNH L EEO\  H G EH SE NK, EHESH GMKH EUK  G?ENG  E LKO  EBHL?K G 'qG, G E CHKKHK BHE\-H LHFKGH-XQH, GMK EHLIKEEHL 19a13q07o R 19a30q36o  EMMNGHKM R EHL 87a52q40o R 88a06q55o EHGMN HLM, G E LMH  NGMGHH (". 1). SE NK L NGH  EHLHL ?HKLMEL FUL KGL  FIHK-MGML  E HG R JNGMGKKHGL,HNI NG LNIK? MHME  54,441 (A-!#, 1998),  EL NEL 25,000 (46%) HKKLIHGG E UK ?HKLMEIKFGGM (UK H FGH ?HKLME).!G LM LNIK?, E OM\G HF-GGM L E LEO FG LNIKGG?HE(KG, 1978), E NE EK NGGHKF OKL  IEGML R GFEL.!E HLJN G E K\G EGS NG EMNK 24 F R HGMG EKHK  100LIL  UKHEL, LGH EL FULNGGML "=;A ?> (.) . HRG, BA><< ;A< P. R BAA <A (.) K. (LMK  ;  .,2005). !E EF L E MIH AP(Qq), UEHLN-^FH HG EENOL G OKGH R IKME GOKGH (#KZ, 1987).  MFIK-MNK R E IKIM\G IKHFH GNE LHG 26 aC R 1234 FF, KLIMOFGM.HL LNEHL JN IKHFGG,  NKHHG E EL?\G FR, LHG: MSDqDE(EMHLHE R KGSG), DqE (ERLHE),RqQ HF (OKMLHE) (UGS-UGS LE, 2002). AGNEFGM, LMHL HLJNL LMUGQINLMHL  E GG  FIMH MHKFGML MKHIEL R NKGL, EHLNEL NG NG IIE FIHKMGM G EGUF E HLJN, G FKH, L  60E; <?> ; AK= D= >A ; AA H ><?>O= AOA HGLK JN LMHL HLJNL GLKKHEEH NG KLEG EO, RJN G EHKH IMKL  NG LMHK IHK EH FGHL 3000 [HL  FIMHL?KNGML  NKGL (F  ;. ,1991), GGHL ?HKLMEL R MOLNFGL (NKGK, 1978). AFUL, GLM K\G, E HLJN L HLHLEMOFGM  NG  GMGL (1 F 3 / G IKHFH).  HL LKES G E sK "HKLME KFGGME H, E NE L FG IK EIKHN\G  FK R HMKHL IKHNMHL?HKLMEL. !E FGH ?HKLME L EEO H IHK EL IKHIL HFNGL HNG IEG  FGH LH G E GOG-MKH  UKHEL FRHKL  10 F UFMKH  E EMNK E IH (I1,3 FE LNEH)  MHL EL LIL IKMKFGK GOEL  HL LNLMG-ME.!G E UK  LMNH, E NKUGG IL\ LGH  MHKZ 4 G ELE  ??K-FILHG, HG NG OEH- E OGMH  210 DF/  249 DF/(HG  ;  ., 2011); G MGMH JN E IK-IM\G EGS\ NG OEHK  81 FFNKGM EL IKFKL 48 HKL($KGUGS, L/). E=(3<(*0 +3 +(6 NKGM 2003 R 2004 L LMEKHGHH IKEL  NG MUK (500 Q 20F) LMKNL E SK, GMKH E UK?HKLME IKFGGM E H SE NK,"NK 1. \G E UK  LMNH.  61"A H B>@ 18(1), 2012:57-76  HG E ?GE  HGHK EL MIL LKKHEEH E HLJN, LZ HFH MK-FGK E LMKNMNK R HFIHL\G  ELEO FG LNIKGG?HE G LMH. KL E ILH E NKUG G, JN?N G HLMH E 2007, GMK GKH R?KKH  2008 L OEN\ G LML HHIKEL E [H HLHGH IHK LM?G\FGH LHK E KHEH FRHK HNE  10 F  I. !G  IKE LGM?KHG EL LIL R L F\ EI R E EMNK MHME   GONH. !EMIH  [H QIKFGMH IHK GONH ?N MKFGH  NKH HGE EL?\G LNGM: 1) LGKSH(KKH HG QIHL\G  KZL), 2)LHIH (LG KFL L E L E HI), 3) LKFH (KFL LNG-KL JNKL), 4) JNKH (MKHGHJNKH), 5) GEGH (LG QIHL\G KZL), 6) HEH, 0) LG [H. AFUL,L GHMKHG EHL UKHEL JN L HLK-OKHG FNKMHL G I LINXL ENKUG. CNGH E MKHGH L JNK\(MHKZ 4), L MHF\ E EMNK  E NEL HLHG\ E [H. CNGH EHL UKHEL?NKHG KKHL L\EH L EL F\ EI. K ?EMK E GUELL R K HFIKEL EHL KLNEMHL HG HMKHLLMNHL G E K\G, L KNIKHG ELELL  [H G MKL KNIHL IKG-IEL: 1) [H EKH (EL 0 + EL 3),2) [H FHKH (EL 5 + EL 6) R 3)[H LOKH (EL 1 + EL 2 + EL 4). C(406:  3( *6476:0*0 @ :;9<*;<9( +3 6:8< H  JN L HGM HG G?HKF\GIKO E NKUG IK E KHEH KG(I > 30 F), G EL FLFL IKEL,L GESKHG EHL FHL HNKKHL G ELMKNMNK R HFIHL\G E HLJN. ENE\ FUL E KJNS  LIL,GL  ZGL  OEHK  FIHK-MG R E OKL IK R IHLM-NKUG.K ENEK E OEHK  FIHKMG LFIE\ E tG  EHK  FIHKMG: = GL KEMO + HFGG KE-MO + ?KNG KEMO (NEEK-HFHL & !EEGK, 1974).  OK-L ?N ENE FGM E tG GGHG (NKKG, 2004), NLGH EIKHKF !LMFM 8. 2.0.  JNMM-O ?N HMG FGM E N\GHG $q L E ZG  OKL GGHG-GGK R G L E G^FKH MHME GONHL (NKKG, 2004). KOENK E ?MH E NKUG LHK ELMKNMNK E HLJN L KES\ NGIKN  IK FNLMKL IKL IKNG ?MHK (NKUG) HG HL GOEL (GMLR LINXL), FGM E NLH E IKHKF OKL\G 16. !E"$L#ADO"E=(3<(*0 +3 +(6  KLMKKHG NG MHME  1486 UKHELFRHKL  10 F  I, IKMGGML 71 LIL, 59 XGKHL R 32 ?FEL. LMHL UKHEL, 37 (2,4%) KLNEMKHGFNKMHL LINXL E NKUG, IKHH  JN XLMHL ZG LH KL-MKHL HFH nFHKNGHLo G E GLHIKNKUG, GH L GENRKHG G EGUELL. E KHEH FNLMKH, 88,3%IKLGM\ E^G MIH  [H, LGH EHLFUL HFNGL E LKFH (28,9%), ELGKSH (24,7%) R E JNKH(22,4%) (". 2).  EL LIL FULNGGML, EL FUL ?ML ?NKHG %>A A; (!GE.) !RF, E> ?=; (NLL.) ED. R GH<==; P., HG EKHK  80%  EHLUKHEL  LML LIL LOKFGM[HL (E 1). !LML LIL, LHGMZIL E LHMHHLJN R GKEFGM GHEGSG KGL MEEL GMKH EHLJN, E FGHL G E UK  LMNH.
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