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1. Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing 2. Emerging Adulthood <ul><li>Emerging…
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  • 1. Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  • 2. Emerging Adulthood <ul><li>Emerging adulthood -- transition from adolescence to adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Five key features characterize emerging adulthood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity exploration, especially in love and work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling in-between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The age of possibilities when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Jeffrey Arnett, 2006) </li></ul>
  • 3. Becoming an Adult? <ul><li>Holding permanent, ft job </li></ul><ul><li>Taking personal responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Playing house </li></ul><ul><li>Three variables related to success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual fitness -- academic success, good decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological -- self-motivation, confidence, identity, values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social -- community involvement, peer relations </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. A. Physical Development and the Senses <ul><li>Maturation mostly complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Senescence [next] </li></ul>
  • 6. Physical Performance and Development <ul><li>Most reach peak physical performance before 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to decline in physical performance around age 30 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagging chin, protruding abdomens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory systems show little change </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Motor Functioning, Fitness, and Health <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases cardiovascular fitness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles become stronger, body more flexible, endurance increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces osteoporosis in later life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of motion is greater, ligaments more elastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system functioning maximized. </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Health <ul><li>Few chronic health problems, but still significant deaths by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents, suicide, homicide [p.311] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle choices (drugs, alcohol, smoking, unprotected sex) can hasten secondary aging, but few think about it. </li></ul><ul><li>5 years after stopping smoking, health risk is significantly lower </li></ul>
  • 9. Health: Violence <ul><li>Major cause of death for men in early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Homicide is #1 cause of death for young blacks; 2 nd leading cause of death for Hispanics; 5 th for white. </li></ul>
  • 10. B. Obesity - A “weighty” concern
  • 11. B. Obesity - A “weighty” concern <ul><li>Obesity -- BMI > 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Set point, metabolism, need to reduce calorie intake </li></ul><ul><li>Most young adults know which foods are healthy, but ignore good nutrition. </li></ul>
  • 12. C. Physical Disabilities in Young Adulthood: Coping With Physical Challenge <ul><li>Number of disabled Americans ~ 54 million. (2006) Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blind, deaf, wheelchairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also those with chronic diseases or mental disabilities . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates full access to public facilities and accommodations in education and employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Some nondisabled focus so much on disability that they overlook a person’s abilities. </li></ul>
  • 13. D. Date Rape <ul><li>Date or acquaintance rape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text: 2/3 college freshman women report having been date-raped or experienced attempted date rape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RM: Way exaggerated! </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. E. Stress and Coping <ul><li>Define stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is a biological reaction to external events, in which hormones are released that cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) </li></ul>
  • 15. II. Cognitive Development <ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests that Piaget was WRONG that adolescents and adults think qualitatively in the same way (and many adults don’t think in formal operations). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gisela Labouvie-Vief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>postformal thought </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. C. William Perry <ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplism </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul>
  • 18. E. Sternberg and Intelligence (thinking?) <ul><li>Robert Sternberg’s TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Componential – analyzing data to solve problems; “intelligence” tests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential – using prior experience to cope with new situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual – meeting the demands of the everyday world. </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Stimulating Creativity p. 323 <ul><li>Steps toward a more creative life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set a schedule! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep a journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow ideas that spark an interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wake up in the morning with a specific goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time in settings that stimulate your creativity </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. III. College: Pursuing Higher Education
  • 21. Education & Poverty
  • 22. The Changing College Student
  • 23. The Changing College Student P roportion of 18-to-24-Year-Old Men and
Women Enrolled in College, 1967-2005
  • 24. The Changing College Student <ul><li>1/3 of college students today are 25 years of age or older. </li></ul><ul><li>Average age at CC is 31. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A college degree is becoming increasingly important in obtaining a job.” RM: Essential to a good job [next] </li></ul>
  • 26. College Adjustment <ul><li>Surveys: almost half have a least one significant psychological issue. [next] </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship changes </li></ul>
  • 27. When should college students consider getting professional help with their problems? <ul><li>Distress that interferes with ability to function. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness or depressed feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability (or reduced ability) to build close relationships with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms that have no apparent underlying cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep, eating, activity </li></ul>
  • 28. During the 1 st year of college What is at the root of this difference?
  • 29. Work and College
  • 30. Dropping Out of College <ul><li>Half of all students drop out of college. Why? </li></ul>
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