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1. PSYCHOLOGY The science of behaviour and cognitive processes. Definition : Psychology is “the science of human and animal behaviour; it includes the application of…
  • 1. PSYCHOLOGY The science of behaviour and cognitive processes. Definition : Psychology is “the science of human and animal behaviour; it includes the application of this science to human problems. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 1
  • 2. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY BBA/ Nidhi Garg 2 Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions René Descartes (1596-1650) Philosophy asks questions about the mind:  Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception? Problem- No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • 3. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 3 Psychology Is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorou as the methods of chemistry & physics. Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)
  • 4. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 4 Psychology (pre-1920) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist Founder of Psychology as a Science Experiments Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Student of Wundt Formed Y at Cornell Introspection William James (1842-1910) Philosopher & Psychologist Formed Y at Harvard Psychology Understanding Mental Processes
  • 5. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 5 Structuralism vs Functionalism William James (1842-1910) Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work Structuralism Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt
  • 6. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 6 Behaviorism Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior. John Watson (1878-1958) Ivan Pavlov Psych the Science of Behavior Stimulus Response Psychology Mental Processes cannot be studied directly
  • 7. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 7 Psychology (1920s-1960s) John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behavior without Reference to Thought The RAT & S-R Psychology B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorism with a Twist The PIDGEON & The Skinner Box Psychology Science of Observable Behavior Behaviorism
  • 8. KEY PERSPECTIVES  Behavioural : overt behaviour  Cognitive : cognitive processes i.e. memory, thought, reasoning & others  Biological : biological processes underlie behaviour  Evolutionary : evolved psychological mechanism  Developmental : changes in behaviour over life span BBA/ Nidhi Garg 8
  • 9. Contd….  Psychodynamic : unconscious and internal processes  Social and cultural : social and cultural factors BBA/ Nidhi Garg 9
  • 10. Psychology and Diversity  Diversity-“ Difference in the behavior or characteristics of individuals from different cultures or ethnic group.”  Multicultural Perspective: in psychology an approach that pays careful attention to the effects of ethnic and cultural forces on behavior. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 10
  • 11. Examples  Russia more then 16000 women are murdered by their spouse each year which is endorsed by some cultural values (Horne 1999) “Beat the wife for better cabbage soup”  Japan , cultural values view violence as appropriate form of discipline and punishment  So nature and cause of domestic violence must include careful attention of cultural factors. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 11
  • 12. Evolutionary psychology  A branch of psychology suggesting that as a result of evolution, human being possess many evolved psychological mechanisms that help (or once helped) us to deal with important problems relating to survival.  Evolution-Charles Darwin –3 basic components  Variation  Inheritance BBA/ Nidhi Garg 12
  • 13. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 13 Variation – organisms vary in many ways Inheritance- some of these variations are heritable This is the crucial outcome of evolution Selection- Variations that are adaptive become increasingly common in the population
  • 14. THANK YOU BBA/ Nidhi Garg 14
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