INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY.

 Education

 3 views
of 14
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Description
1. PSYCHOLOGY The science of behaviour and cognitive processes. Definition : Psychology is “the science of human and animal behaviour; it includes the application of…
Share
Transcript
  • 1. PSYCHOLOGY The science of behaviour and cognitive processes. Definition : Psychology is “the science of human and animal behaviour; it includes the application of this science to human problems. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 1
  • 2. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY BBA/ Nidhi Garg 2 Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions René Descartes (1596-1650) Philosophy asks questions about the mind:  Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception? Problem- No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • 3. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 3 Psychology Is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorou as the methods of chemistry & physics. Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)
  • 4. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 4 Psychology (pre-1920) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist Founder of Psychology as a Science Experiments Edward Titchner (1867-1927) Student of Wundt Formed Y at Cornell Introspection William James (1842-1910) Philosopher & Psychologist Formed Y at Harvard Psychology Understanding Mental Processes
  • 5. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 5 Structuralism vs Functionalism William James (1842-1910) Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work Structuralism Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt
  • 6. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 6 Behaviorism Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior. John Watson (1878-1958) Ivan Pavlov Psych the Science of Behavior Stimulus Response Psychology Mental Processes cannot be studied directly
  • 7. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 7 Psychology (1920s-1960s) John B. Watson (1878-1958) Behavior without Reference to Thought The RAT & S-R Psychology B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorism with a Twist The PIDGEON & The Skinner Box Psychology Science of Observable Behavior Behaviorism
  • 8. KEY PERSPECTIVES  Behavioural : overt behaviour  Cognitive : cognitive processes i.e. memory, thought, reasoning & others  Biological : biological processes underlie behaviour  Evolutionary : evolved psychological mechanism  Developmental : changes in behaviour over life span BBA/ Nidhi Garg 8
  • 9. Contd….  Psychodynamic : unconscious and internal processes  Social and cultural : social and cultural factors BBA/ Nidhi Garg 9
  • 10. Psychology and Diversity  Diversity-“ Difference in the behavior or characteristics of individuals from different cultures or ethnic group.”  Multicultural Perspective: in psychology an approach that pays careful attention to the effects of ethnic and cultural forces on behavior. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 10
  • 11. Examples  Russia more then 16000 women are murdered by their spouse each year which is endorsed by some cultural values (Horne 1999) “Beat the wife for better cabbage soup”  Japan , cultural values view violence as appropriate form of discipline and punishment  So nature and cause of domestic violence must include careful attention of cultural factors. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 11
  • 12. Evolutionary psychology  A branch of psychology suggesting that as a result of evolution, human being possess many evolved psychological mechanisms that help (or once helped) us to deal with important problems relating to survival.  Evolution-Charles Darwin –3 basic components  Variation  Inheritance BBA/ Nidhi Garg 12
  • 13. BBA/ Nidhi Garg 13 Variation – organisms vary in many ways Inheritance- some of these variations are heritable This is the crucial outcome of evolution Selection- Variations that are adaptive become increasingly common in the population
  • 14. THANK YOU BBA/ Nidhi Garg 14
  • Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks