Have You Sequestrated your Carbon in your Garden - Teacher Handbook for School Gardening

 Education

 16 views
of 24
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Description
Have You Sequestrated your Carbon in your Garden - Teacher Handbook for School Gardening ~ tessafrica.net~ For more information, Please see websites below: ` Organic Edible Schoolyards & Gardening with Children = http://scribd.com/doc/239851214 ~ ` Double Food Production from your School Garden with Organic Tech = http://scribd.com/doc/239851079 ~ ` Free School Gardening Art Posters = http://scribd.com/doc/239851159 ~ ` Increase Food Production with Companion Planting in your School Garden = http://scribd.com/doc/239851159 ~ ` Healthy Foods Dramatically Improves Student Academic Success = http://scribd.com/doc/239851348 ~ ` City Chickens for your Organic School Garden = http://scribd.com/doc/239850440 ~ ` Huerto Ecológico, Tecnologías Sostenibles, Agricultura Organica http://scribd.com/doc/239850233 ` Simple Square Foot Gardening for Schools - Teacher Guide = http://scribd.com/doc/239851110
Share
Transcript
  • 1. Have you Sequestrated your Carbon? A Share-Net Resource Book Reading-to-learn curriculum materials to support Mathematics, Technology, Natural Sciences, and Language learning areas
  • 2. 1 Acknowledgments The Handprint resource books have been compiled by Rob O’Donoghue and Helen Fox of the Rhodes University Environmental Education and Sustainability Unit. Lawrence Sisitka was responsible for coordination and review, and Kim Ward for editorial review and production for curriculum and Eco-School use. Development funding was provided by CAPE. Cover illustrations are by Tammy Griffin. Knowledge and activity support materials have been adapted from various sources including the Internet, and web addresses have been provided for readers to access any copyright materials directly. For this particular resource book, a big thank you to Lawrence Sisitka who willing shared his materials and knowledge of carbon sequestration and gave valuable advice. Thank you also to the Independent newspaper, Great Britain, for permission to use their copyright material in this resource book. Any part of this resource book may be reproduced copyright free, provided that if the materials are produced in booklet or published form, there is acknowledgment of Share-Net. Available from Share-Net P O Box 394, Howick, 3290, South Africa Tel (033) 3303931 sharenet@wessa.co.za January 2009 ISBN 978-1-919991-60-3
  • 3. 2 RESOURCE BOOKS The Handprint Resource Books have been designed for creative educators who are looking for practical ideas to work with in the learning areas of the National Curriculum. The focus is on sustainability practices that can be taken up within the perspective that each learning area brings to environment and sustainability concerns. The resource books are intended to provide teachers with authentic start-up materials for change-orientated learning. The aim is to work towards re-imagining more sustainable livelihood practices in a warming world. Each start-up story was developed as a reading- to-learn account of environmental learning and change. Included are copies of the knowledge resources that informed those involved in the actual learning experiences described here. Working with local cases of learning and change has allowed us to develop the resource books around locally relevant knowledge resources and practical learning activities that relate to our African context. We are grateful to teachers and Eco-School support groups who have willingly shared their learning experiences and activities. The Handprint Resource Books are an attempt to work from authentic cases of environmental learning and change. They combine some of the best teaching and learning tools that are being used to support change-orientated learning in the everyday realities of our South African schools. The resource books include: 1. Start-up stories with knowledge support materials (Reading for information to build up a picture) 2. Questions to talk about (Talking to clarify issues and to plan local enquiry) 3. Tools to find out about local concerns (Writing about and reporting on local issues) 4. Things to try out (Writing up and reporting on what has been tried out) 5. Ideas to deliberate (Discussing, weighing up and recording decisions that will allow us to ‘re-imagine and re-write’ our sustainability practices in a warming world). 2. Talk about local concerns, questions and possibilities 1. Read a case story 5. Deliberate change to more sustainable practices 4. Try out new ideas 3. Find out about local concerns Start-up story Knowledge support materials Open-ended questions and key word searches Enquiry investigations with activity / audit sheets Practical learning-by-doing project options Report on change and deliberation ideas Write up your own story of learning and change 1-2 Start-up story to situate 2-4 Local learning engagement 5. Reporting and reflection
  • 4. 1 LEARNING AREAS provide change-orientated learning contexts to engage sustainable lifestyle practices in many ways Change-orientated learning & the curriculum Technology Responsible Technology for a Healthy Environment Social Sciences Environment & Development and How It Came To Be Like This Economics & Management Sciences (EMS) Sustaining People and Economy by Sustaining our Environment Life Orientation Informing Choices for Personal, Community and Environmental Health Languages Ways of Reading the World and Re-Writing its Possibilities Mathematics Mathematics Counting For Human Rights and a Healthier Environment Natural Sciences Enquiry to Know Earth’s Life Support Systems and Act Responsibly Arts & Culture Environment as a Cultural Concern and Arts enable Creative Expression of our Views Social Sciences learning will support actions that contribute to helping one another and developing sustainable communities Helpful Handprints Arts and Culture learning will support actions that contribute to cultural and creative activities Creative Handprints Economics & Management Sciences learning will support actions that contribute to sustainable production and living Productive Handprints Mathematics learning will support actions that contribute to counting, measuring and calculating Counting Handprints Technology learning will support actions that contribute to useful and sustainable innovation Innovative Handprints Life Orientation learning will support actions that contribute to ensuring better health for everyone Healthy Handprints Language learning will support actions that contribute to expressing our ideas accurately in words Expressive Handprints Natural Sciences learning will support actions that contribute to a greener, healthier and more beautiful environment Greening Handprints The activities in this book can be used to support learning in the Natural Sciences, Technology, Mathematics and Language learning areas, and can contribute to the development of Greening, Innovative, Counting and Expressive Handprints. Teachers should consult the learning outcomes and assessment standards and should adapt the activities to suit their grade requirements.
  • 5. 1 CONTENTS Starting points 1. Reading to Learn ........................................................................................... 1 School story: Have you sequestrated your carbon? 2. Comprehension Questions .............................................................................. 3 to guide local learning 3. Discussion Points............................................................................................ 3 to start local enquiry and action 4. Finding Out Activities ..................................................................................... 4 5. Trying Out Activities ....................................................................................... 4 6. Deliberation Ideas .......................................................................................... 4 to think carefully about and debate Ideas and Tools for Local Learning Knowledge & Activity Support Materials (SM) SM 1. Deforestation: the hidden cause of global warming ........................................... 5 SM 2. Disappearing plankton................................................................................... 6 SM 3. Carbon footprint calculator ............................................................................ 7 SM 4. The carbon issue: spekboom wonderboom....................................................... 9 SM 5. The man who planted trees...........................................................................10 SM 6. How to plant a tree......................................................................................14 SM 7. Carbon footprint..........................................................................................15 SM 8. Car sharing.................................................................................................17
  • 6. 1 Have you sequestrated your carbon? Ever since the film, ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ by Al Gore, the problem of climate change has been taken very seriously. It’s on the news, and I often see articles on climate change in the Mail and Guardian newspaper which my dad buys every week. I therefore wasn’t surprised when we started exploring climate change in our natural sciences class. But it’s great. I have learnt many interesting things. At first it was distressing because the problem seems SO huge, but by the end of our week exploring this, I realized that we can each make a significant difference. Our class has already begun to do this. It’s always exciting to realize that you as an individual can do something to improve the world. Our teacher divided our class into two groups. Each group had to research a problem about global warming. I’d already seen a number of articles on global warming so I suggested to my group that we read a variety of newspapers to see what we could find. One article we found in the Independent, UK was terrifying; it told of the horrors of deforestation (SM 1). We learnt that deforestation is the second biggest contributor to carbon emissions. I was amazed that in the next 24 hours deforestation will release as much CO2 into the atmosphere as 8 million people flying from London to New York. Flying is a big contributor to global warming. My cousin has even promised never to go on another aeroplane again, now that she understands the impact of flying. What is the impact of 8 million people flying, I wondered? The other interesting thing we learnt is that countries that experience a lot of deforestation, are ranked very high when we compare the amount of greenhouse gases pumped by different countries into the atmosphere. For example, Indonesia, which is one of the main countries experiencing deforestation of their tropical forests, is ranked third, only behind America and China, in the amount of greenhouse gases it produces. The other group found an article on the effects of phytoplankton (SM 2) on absorbing and storing (or sequestering) carbon. Their article was also frightening because it looked at how phytoplankton, which act as an important carbon sink (i.e. they absorb carbon) are threatened by a number of different things, mostly linked to climate change. For example, the oceans are losing fixed nitrogen because they are getting warmer. Nitrogen is a fertilizer for phytoplankton, so they begin to suffer and die. Our teacher explained that this is a ‘positive feedback loop’ – global warming is heating up the oceans which affects the phytoplankton’s ability to survive. Phytoplankton absorb the carbon dioxide that is one of the main greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Less phytoplankton will mean more global warming. It is a positive feedback because each effect in the chain reinforces itself. (The word positive can be confusing, because it sounds like it is something you would want. But in this example the positive feedback is reinforcing something damaging. It is Key words Carbon dioxide Climate change Deforestation Global warming Greenhouse gases Phytoplankton Sequestrate School story
  • 7. 2 therefore something you don’t want to happen). After the two groups shared this unhappy news, our teacher told us we were going to work out how much carbon we each contribute to the atmosphere. This is what she called our ‘carbon footprint’. She read through something she gave to each of us, on the things that contribute to our carbon footprints (SM 3). We then went to the Internet to find out how to calculate our carbon footprints. Transport seems to have a big impact. People who walk or cycle a lot and don’t fly much, often have lower carbon footprints than those who fly a lot and drive in big cars, especially 4x4s. After all this bad news, our teacher divided us into our two groups again, and gave us the task of researching positive things that can be done about global warming. Our group came across another article, in our local newspaper, common in subtropical thicket. The article said that spekboom can “capture between 2 and 4 tons of carbon per hectare per year”. That sounds like a lot of carbon. The other group found a very inspiring story called “The man who planted trees” (SM 5). We’re still not sure if it’s true, because it sounded too good to be true. The story describes how one man, through planting trees, was able to change a whole landscape to one overflowing with life. This story and the spekboom article really inspired our class! We decided to take spekboom cuttings and plant them in our school grounds. After four months most of them have survived and seem to be growing well. We also planted eight trees and hope that each year more will be planted. Imagine we could turn part of our playground into a forest. Glossary Carbon dioxide: a gas that has no colour or smell. It naturally occurs in the atmosphere but its quantities have increased dramatically in the last two hundred years as humans have burnt fossil fuels, such as oil. It is the most important greenhouse gas, which means it contributes the most to global warming. Climate change: otherwise known as global warming, although it doesn’t always mean this. Some parts of the world might actually cool down. The greatest problem is that there will be increased unpredictability of weather systems due to the increased energy in the system. Deforestation: cutting down forests which changes the way ecosystems function. Global warming: an increase in the world’s temperatures, which also means more droughts, floods and other disasters. This is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases: gases which absorb the sun’s heat and therefore contribute to the greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide. Phytoplankton: very tiny plants that you can’t see without a microscope that live in the ocean and absorb a lot of carbon. They are often algae. Sequestrate: to take (or confiscate) something for safekeeping. Carbon sequestration means to capture carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the form of plant tissue. Spekboom cuttings
  • 8. 3 Comprehension Questions 1. What is the second biggest contributor to global warming? 2. What is negatively impacting phytoplankton? 3. What does a carbon footprint mean? 4. How much carbon can spekboom capture in a year? 5. What, if any, are the horrors of deforestation to you? (SM 1) 6. Can you describe what a positive feedback is, based on SM 2? 7. What things contribute to one’s carbon footprint? (SM 3) 8. Would you call the spekboom a ‘wonder plant’, and if yes why? (SM 4) 9. How did one person transform a landscape? 10. Was this story about the man who planted trees inspiring to you, and if so, why was it inspiring? (SM 5) Discussion Points Discuss the impact that global warming could have on our lives. Discuss what can be done to reduce global warming. Add your own ideas and questions
  • 9. 4 FINDING OUT ACTIVITY Activity 1: Find out the family carbon footprint of each learner. Use SM 3 to guide you in what aspects of one’s lifestyle to analyse critically. If you have access to the Internet you could look at the many excellent sites, highlighted in SM 3 that help you calculate your carbon footprint. TRYING OUT ACTIVITIES Activity 1: You could either get your learners to plant spekboom cuttings in the school playground, or else you could start a tree planting project. Use SM 6 to help you. Activity 2: Your class could do a carbon footprint exercise – use SM 7 to guide you. DELIBERATION IDEAS To deliberate is to think carefully about, to consider, to discuss in a focused way, to weigh up and debate. Here are some ideas to support this process in your learners. Lead a discussion with your learners on whether planting trees is enough. Discuss what practical things we can start doing as part of our everyday lives. • What can your school do practically to reduce your carbon footprint? (car pooling is one option – see SM 8) • What can your class do practically to reduce your carbon footprint? • What can individual learners do practically to reduce their carbon footprints? Get each learner to outline a personal plan to help reduce these. Things to include in the plan could include being careful about what they buy, including goods with less packaging; planting trees; considering various ways of using less energy e.g. putting a blanket over the geyser so it doesn’t lose heat; cycling and walking more and driving less; joining a car pooling system; using public transport.
  • 10. 5 May 14, 2007 Deforestation: The Hidden Cause of Global Warming by Daniel Howden In the next 24 hours, deforestation will release as much CO2 into the atmosphere as 8 million people flying from London to New York. Stopping the loggers is the fastest and cheapest solution to climate change. So why are global leaders turning a blind eye to this crisis? The accelerating destruction of the rainforests that form a precious cooling band around the Earth's equator, is now being recognised as one of the main causes of climate change. Carbon emissions from deforestation far outstrip damage caused by planes and automobiles and factories. The rampant slashing and burning of tropical forests is second only to the energy sector as a source of greenhouses gases according to a report published today by the Oxford-based Global Canopy Programme, an alliance of leading rainforest scientists. Research shows that deforestation causes up to 25 per cent of global emissions of heat- trapping gases, while transport and industry account for 14 per cent each; and airplanes make up only 3 per cent of the total. "Tropical forests are the elephant in the living room of climate change," said Andrew Mitchell, the head of the Global Canopy Programme. Reducing these catastrophic emissions can be achieved most quickly and most cheaply by halting the destruction in Brazil, Indonesia, the Congo and elsewhere. No new technology is needed, just laws and incentives that make the trees worth more living than cut down. Most people think of forests only in terms of the CO2 they absorb. The rainforests of the Amazon, the Congo basin and Indonesia are thought of as the lungs of the planet. But the destruction of those forests will in the next four years alone pump more CO2 into the atmosphere than every flight in the history of aviation to at least 2025. Indonesia became the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world last week. Following close behind is Brazil. Neither nation has heavy industry on a comparable scale with the European Union, India or Russia and yet they easily produce more greenhouse gases than all other countries, except the United States and China. What both countries do have in common is tropical forest that is being cut and burned with staggering swiftness. Smoke stacks visible from space climb into the sky above both countries, while satellite images capture similar destruction from the Congo basin, across the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo. According to the latest audited figures from 2003, two billion tons of CO2 enters the atmosphere every year from deforestation. That destruction amounts to 50 million acres - or an area the size of England, Wales and Scotland felled annually. The remaining standing forest is calculated to contain 1,000 billion tons of carbon, or double what is already in the atmosphere. If we lose forests, we lose the fight against climate change. Forests offer the "single largest opportunity for cost-effective and immediate reductions of carbon emissions". Forests also produce most of the rainfall worldwide and act as a thermostat for the Earth. Forests are also home to 1.6 billion of the world's poorest people who rely on them for subsistence. Howden, D. May 14, 2007. Deforestation: The Hidde
  • Related Search
    We Need Your Support
    Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

    Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

    No, Thanks