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A Guide to ASTRO™ Digital Radios R03.00.00 – August 2007 Authored by r0f Note: This guide is NOT supported by Motorola Inc., nor does Motorola Inc. necessarily condone any information contained within, although it’s probably better than anything they could/would/should put out. The information is provided as-is for educational benefit only. ASTRO™, ASTRO25™, SmartZone™, SmartZone OmniLink™, XTS 3000™, ASTRO Digital Saber™, ASTRO Digital Spectra™, MT 1500™, PR 1500™, XTS 1500™, XTS 2500/2500RB™
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    A Guide to ASTRO ™ Digital Radios R03.00.00  – August 2007Authored by r0f  Note: This guide is NOT supported by Motorola Inc., nor does Motorola Inc. necessarily condone any information contained within, although it’s probably better than anything they could/would/should put out . The information is provided as-is for educationalbenefit only. ASTRO ™ , ASTRO25 ™ , SmartZone ™ , SmartZone OmniLink ™ , XTS 3000 ™ , ASTRO Digital Saber ™ , ASTRO Digital Spectra ™ ,MT 1500 ™ , PR 1500 ™ , XTS 1500 ™ , XTS 2500/2500RB ™ , XTS 4000 ™ , XTS 5000 ™ , SSE 5000 ™ , XTL 1500/1500RB ™ , XTL 2500/2500RB ™  and XTL 5000 ™ are registered trademarks owned by Motorola Inc., all rights reserved.    Guide to ASTRO  ™ Digital Radios    Table of Contents Preface ............................................................................................................................................................ 3   History ............................................................................................................................................................. 4Model-specific Discussion: ASTRO ™ Legacy Series ...................................................................................... 6 ASTRO Digital Saber ™ .......................................................................................................................................... 6 XTS 3000 ™ ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 ASTRO Digital Spectra ™ ..................................................................................................................................... 14Model-specific Discussion: ASTRO25 ™ Series ........................................................................................... 19 XTS 5000 ™ ...................................................................................................................................................... 19 XTS 2500 ™ ...................................................................................................................................................... 25 XTS 4000 ™ ...................................................................................................................................................... 26 XTS 1500 ™ , SSE 5000 ™ , XTL 2500 ™ , XTL 1500 ™ , XTL 2500 ™ , XTL 5000 ™ , MT 1500 ™ , PR 1500 ™ and Digital Spectra Plus ™ .... 27Radio Operating System (ROS) and DSP Firmware Discussion ................................................................. 28 ASTRO ™ Firmware ........................................................................................................................................... 28 ASTRO25 ™ Firmware ........................................................................................................................................ 32FLASHport ™ Technology ............................................................................................................................. 46 FLASHport ™ Feature Chart .................................................................................................................................. 47Hardware Hacking ....................................................................................................................................... 49Guidelines For Buying & Selling ASTRO ™ /ASTRO25 ™ Kit ......................................................................... 54Radio Programming: Software and Hardware Part Numbers .................................................................. 55ASTRO ™ & ASTRO25 ™ Encryption Hardware ........................................................................................... 56Change Log.................................................................................................................................................. 57    Guide to ASTRO  ™ Digital Radios    Preface The guide encompasses many modularized pieces of information which are scatteredthroughout Internet discussion boards, Motorola Inc. radio service manuals, service bulletins, technicalbriefs and personal technical notes assembled over the last six years. It is meant to serve as a technicaloutline and basis of understanding, to be used by radio-hobbyists, system planners and others who have an interest in learning about Motorola Inc.’s ASTRO™ and ASTRO25 ™ radio platforms.In this third edition of the Guide to ASTRO ™ Digital Radios , improvements have been made tobetter organize the content and improve the formatting of key sections.Additional sections have been added including an advanced “hacking” introduction, an eBay™  listing & buying guide for ASTRO ™ equipment and a brief introduction to system infrastructure includingthe Motorola Inc. Quantar ™ station.The Guide to ASTRO ™  Digital Radios fulfills a need for accurate and current information relatingto this tier of communications equipment. It is apparent by the repetitive questions posted on certainInternet discussion forums and limited information posted in eBay ™ auctions there’s a definite need for the information in this guide, which otherwise may not be known.The purpose of the Guide to ASTRO ™  Digital Radios is to educate and enlighten radio-hobbyistsand combine all available knowledge into one portable document.Corrections and contributions to the guide are always welcome. You may submit yourcorrespondence to shaun@p25.ca via email. All correspondence will be treated as confidential unless stated otherwise.    Guide to ASTRO  ™ Digital Radios    History Development of Motorola Inc.’s ASTRO™ products began sometime around 1992. This isevidenced through reference to the 1992 time-line in all versions of product firmware at address C03Dh.   Figure 1.1 Screen-shot of host firmware code referencing 1992 development.   It is believed Motorola Inc.’s first ASTRO™ product, the ASTRO Digital Saber ™ , was released in1995. When it was introduced, it was marketed to the U.S. Military and federal government as areplacement and upgrade over existing SecureNet ™ products.  The ASTRO Digital Saber ™ was capable of transmitting digital voice at 9.6Kbps using the C4FMmodulation scheme, in addition to transmitting regular analog FM signals and CVSD SecureNet ™ .ASTRO ™ , Motorola Inc.’s first digital voice platform, utilized the Vector Sum Excited LinearPrediction (VSELP) codec. (A variant of the Code Exciter Linear Prediction (CELP) codec family) VSELPcodec implementation in the ASTRO ™ radio platform was at 4.8Kbps, with 2.1Kbps error correction coding (6.9Kbps).In 1995 or thereabouts, the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials (APCO)devised a plan called APCO Project-25, which outlines the standards for digital public safety radio-communications systems. Digital Voice Systems Inc.’s (DVSI) Improved Multi-Band Excitation (IMBE ™ ) codec was chosen asthe APCO-25 standard after tests were carried out to determine the most effective low-bitrate codec. Itwas determined the 4.4Kbps codec with 2.8Kbps of error correction coding (7.2Kbps) was best-suited forAPCO Project-25. Figure 1.2   Speech quality vs. channel condition.  Inmarsat has formally tested the IMBE™ v ocoder against a variety of CELP based codecs to determine the speech quality under various channel conditions. The results of this evaluation illustrate that the IMBE™ Vocod er is very resilientto high Bit Error Rates. (Source: DVSI)
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