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A8.0 Construction manual for a slow sand filter How to construct an intermittent slow sand filter. 69 TABLE OF CONTENTS 0.0 Introduction................................................................................. pg. 71 1.0 Description................................................................................... pg. 71 2.0 Essential Design Criteria....................................................... pg. 71-72 3.0 Supplies .........................................................
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   69  A 8.0 Construction manual for a slow sand filter   How to construct an intermittent slow sand filter.   70  TABLE OF CONTENTS0.0 Introduction.................................................................................pg. 711.0 Description...................................................................................pg. 712.0 Essential Design Criteria.......................................................pg. 71-723.0 Supplies........................................................................................pg. 724.0 Construction................................................................................pg. 734.1 Preparing the Barrel.......................................................pg. 744.2 Constructing/Installation of PVC Tubing....................pg. 744.3 Washing the gravel and sand.........................................pg. 774.4. Final assembly.................................................................pg. X5.0 First run and Operation.............................................................pg. 806.0 Maintenance................................................................................pg. 80   71 0.0 Introduction This instruction manual will show how to build, operate and maintain an intermittentfiltration system. An intermittent filter is one that does not require continuous flow. Thisallows for the user to filter water when needed. This particular filtration system includesan intermittent slow sand filter and a moringa seed flocculation tank. The filter process isshown in Figure 1. The flocculation tank works to reduce the amount of suspendedparticles in the water before filtration. This is important because removing particlesgreatly reduces the amount of bacteria in the water and increases the life of the slow sandfilter. The slow sand filter uses a naturally occurring biofilm called a schmutzdecke toaid in water filtration. It is important to know that the biofilm provides the mainmechanisms for filtration and maintaining the biofilm is the greatest concern. 1.0 Description The slow sand filter described in this document will produce approximately 1.5 liters of clean water per minute. The filter takes 2 or 3 people about 5 hours to construct. Itrequires 3 weeks of operation to begin producing clean water. Many of the componentsused in the construction of this filter may not be available in your area. We suggestalternatives for some of the components throughout the manual. The design can bealtered as long as the essential criteria are met. In Nairobi, Kenya a filter with similarattributes was constructed for around 15 US dollars, about 1050 Kenyan shillings. 2. 0 Essential Design Criteria  The essential design criteria are the necessary components and filter requirements toallow operation. Listed below are the Essential Design Criteria: Figure 1: This figure shows the filtration process. Step 1 is flocculation of dirty water, addground moringa seeds and wait over night. Step 2 shows filtration of flocculated water.   72 5.   The dirty water travels through a 45 cm tall column of sand.6.   The sand is prevented from leaving the barrel by a layer of small gravel.7.   The top layer of sand remains under 2 cm of water between uses.8.   The top layer is not disturbed when the dirty water is poured in. 3.0 Supplies  The primary slow sand filter described in this document, as shown in Figure 1, can bemade from supplies list on the left of Table 1. An alternative filter can be constructedwith the supplies listed on the right of Table 1. Table 2 shows the supplies needed tobuild a flocculation tank. Included in the supply lists are the tools needed forconstruction. It should be noted that the sand and gravel are listed in heightmeasurements. While you will not purchase sand and gravel by these measurement it ismeant to describe how tall the column of sand and gravel should be. The width of thebarrel used will determine the overall volume of sand and gravel required. As long as thesand column is 45 cm deep and the gravel column is 10 cm deep all is well.Primary Filter Supplies Alternative Filter Supplies1.   1 ~55 gallon barrels with seal2.   5 ft of ½” PVC tubing3.   45 cm washed sand4.   10 cm washed pea gravel5.   Fine washed gravel6.   Bulk head with washer7.   ½” PVC joint elbows, no threads8.   ½” PVC joint elbows (one endthreaded)1.   1 ~100 liter barrels with seal2.   5 ft of ½” PVC tubing3.   45 cm washed sand4.   10 cm washed pea gravel5.   Fine washed gravel6.   2~½” PVC joint elbows7.   PVC glue8.   End cap9.   Knife 45 cm washedsand2 cm abovePebbles toprevent sand Figure 2: Quarter-section of Slow Sand Filter showing essential criteria.
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