Environmentally friendly pulping and bleaching of bagasse xps

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Environmentally friendly pulping and bleaching of bagasse xps
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  -RHYWXVMEP 'VSTW ERH 4VSHYGXW   z )RZMVSRQIRXEPP] JVMIRHP] TYPTMRK ERH FPIEGLMRK SJ FEKEWWI 4 /LVMWXSZE E   3 /SVHWEGLME  F  6 4EXX  F  - /EVEV  E  8 /LMHIV  E E 9RMZIVWMX] SJ /LEVXSYQ 4ISTPItW ,EPP  43&  /LEVXSYQ 7YHER  F  -RWXMXYXI SJ ;SSH 'LIQMWXV]  ,EQFYVK +IVQER] 6IGIMZIH  .YP]  EGGITXIH  1E]  %FWXVEGX Depithed Sudanese bagasse was examined for its suitability for pulp production. Bagasse fibre dimensions, morphological ERH GLIQMGEP GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW EVI VITSVXIH 8LI TYPTMRK XVMEPW [IVI GEVVMIH SYX [MXL WSHEz%5 ERH EPOEPMRI WYPTLMXIz%5 %7z%5 methods and soda method as reference. The AS–AQ pulping gave the bestresults in yield, degree of delignification, mechanical ERH STXMGEP TYPT TVSTIVXMIW &PIRHMRK SJ FEKEWWI ERH FEQFSS EPOEPMRI WYPTLMXIzERXLVEUYMRSRI TYPTW MR HMJJIVIRX VEXMSW KEZI[IPPFEPERGIH TYPT WXVIRKXL GLEVEGXIVMWXMGW [MXL KSSH XIRWMPI ERH XIEV MRHMGIW [MHIRMRK XLI VERKI SJ HMJJIVIRX IRH TVSHYGXW JVSQ FEKEWWI TYPT 8SXEPP] GLPSVMRI JVII FPIEGLMRK 5  345  4 SJ XLI FIWX YRFPIEGLIH FEKEWWI TYPTW KEZI FPIEGLIH TYPTW SJ -73 FVMKLXRIWW WYMXEFPI JSV YWI MR [VMXMRK ERH TVMRXMRK KVEHIW SJ TETIV  )PWIZMIV &: %PP VMKLXW VIWIVZIH /I][SVHW &EKEWWI 7SHE 7SHEz%5 %7z%5 TYPTMRK 8'* FPIEGLMRK 4YPT IZEPYEXMSR 3\]XIRERXLIVE EF]WWMRMGE  &PIRHMRK  -RXVSHYGXMSR (YVMRK XLI PEWX  ]IEVW XLI TYPT ERH TETIV MRHYW try has intensified its efforts to minimize pollution EVMWMRK JVSQ TYPTMRK ERH FPIEGLMRK TVSGIWWIW 7YFWXERXMEP MQTVSZIQIRXW [IVI EGLMIZIH JSV XLI EPVIEH] established delignification processes. Moreover, new   TYPTMRK QIXLSHW [IVI HIZIPSTIH MR SVHIV XS TVSHYGI TYPTW [LMGL EVI QSVI IEWMP] FPIEGLEFPI YWMRK SRP]GLPSVMRI JVII FPIEGLMRK EKIRXW7YKEVGERIFEKEWWIMWSRISJXLIQSWXMQTSVXERXRSR[SSHVE[QEXIVMEPWMRHIZIPSTMRKGSYRXVMIW-RGVIEWMRK 'SVVIWTSRHMRK EYXLSV 8IP      )QEMP EHHVIWW TOLVMWXSZE$LSXQEMPGSQ 4 /LVMWXSZE EXXIRXMSR LEW FIIR TEMH XS TYPT FEKEWWI JSV FPIEGLEFPIKVEHIW [MXL LMKLIV ]MIPHW ERH FIXXIV QIGLERMGEP TVSTIVXMIW EW XLI QSWX ETTPMIH WSHE ERH WSQIXMQIW OVEJX TVSGIWWIW EVIRSXWEXMWJ]MRKJVSQ IGSRSQMGEPERHIRZMVSRQIRXEP TSMRX SJ ZMI[7IZIVEP MRZIWXMKEXMSRW LEZI FIIR GEVVMIH SYX XS accelerate pulp delignification and gain higher yields  F] EHHMXMSR SJ ERXLVEUYMRSRI MR FEKEWWI WSHE TYPTMRK[LMGL VIWYPXIH MR TYPTW [MXL TL]WMGEP WXVIRKXL TVSTIVXMIW WMQMPEV XS OVEJX TYPT KVEHIW 1EG0ISH IX EP 7EHE[EVXI IX EP  8ETERIW IX EP -X [EW JSYRH SYX XLEX FEKEWWI GSYPH FI GSSOIH XSI\XVIQIP] PS[ OETTE RYQFIV LMKL ]MIPH ERH FVMKLXRIWW ERH I\GIPPIRX TYPT WXVIRKXL TVSTIVXMIW F] YWMRKXLI EPOEPMRI WYPTLMXIzERXVEUYMRSRI %7z%5 TVSGIWW  z WII JVSRX QEXXIV   )PWIZMIV &: %PP VMKLXW VIWIVZIHHSMNMRHGVST   4 /LVMWXSZE IX EP  -RHYWXVMEP 'VSTW ERH 4VSHYGXW   i ;ERK IXEP8LIEHHMXMSR SJEPGSLSPMRXLMWTVSGIWW LEW SRP] E QEVKMREP IJJIGX SR XLI TYPTMRK VIWYPXW;ERK ERH 4EXX 7YHERIWI YRHITMXLIH FEKEWWI LEZI FIIR TYPTIH YWMRK XLI GSRZIRXMSREP WSHE ERH WYPTLEXI GSSOMRKQIXLSHW ERH [MXL XLI LMKL XIQTIVEXYVI WLSGO ,87QIXLSH 'LVMWXSZ ERH 'LVMWXSZE  ,87 TYPTMRKKEZI  LMKL]MIPH TYPT [MXL QYGL PS[IV EPOEPMGSRWYQTXMSR XLER XLI GSRZIRXMSREP TYPTMRK [MXL GPSWIXIEV ERH XIRWMPI WXVIRKXL LMKLIV FYVWX WXVIRKXL FYXPS[IV JSPHMRK IRHYVERGI +EFMV ERH /LVMWXSZE 8LIEMQSJXLITVIWIRX[SVO[EWXSIZEPYEXIXLIWYMXEFMPMX] JSV TETIVQEOMRK SJ 7YHERIWI FEKEWWI MR GSQ TEVEXMZI TYPTMRK [MXL HMJJIVIRX EPOEPMRI QIXLSHW [MXLEHHMXMZIW ERH XSXEPP] GLPSVMRI JVII FPIEGLMRK &PIRHMRK XVMEPW WLSYPH WLS[ [LIXLIV XLI WXVIRKXL TVSTIVXMIWSJ FEKEWWI TYPT GSYPH FI MQTVSZIH F] FPIRHMRK [MXL FEQFSS TYPT  1EXIVMEPW ERH QIXLSHW &EKEWWI [EW VIGIMZIH JVSQ /IRERE 7YKEVGERI *EGXSV] ;LMXI 2MPI4VSZMRGI8LIFEKEWWI[EW WGVIIRIH[IXHITMXLIH ERH EMVHVMIH*MFVI HMQIRWMSRW IZEPYEXMSR EJXIV QEGIVEXMSR [MXLE QM\XYVI SJ  L]HVSKIR TIVS\MHI ERH EGIXMGEGMH  [EW GEVVMIH SYX F] TVSNIGXMSR QMGVSWGSTMGEPP] EX  ERH  » magnifications. A represen- XEXMZI WEQTPI SJ E TSVXMSR SJ HITMXLIH QEXIVMEP JSVXLI TYPTMRK XVMEPW [EW KVSYRH MR E WXEV QMPP ERH XLIz QIWL JVEGXMSR [EW YWIH JSV GLIQMGEP EREP]WMW EGGSVHMRK XS XLI ETTVSTVMEXI WXERHEVH QIXLSHW8%44-  3FSPIRWOE]E IX EP  4YPTMRK [EWGEVVMIH SYX MR E P SZIVLIEH VSXEXMRK HMKIWXIV 8[SHMJJIVIRX EPOEPMRI TYPTMRK TVSGIWWIW [IVI YWIH WSHEGSSOMRK [MXL ERH [MXLSYX %5 EHHMXMSR ERH %7z%5GSSOMRK &PIRHMRK [EW GEVVMIH SYX [MXL YRFPIEGLIH  FEKEWWIERH FEQFSS  3\]XIRERXLIVE EF]WWMRMGE EPOEPMRI WYPTLMXIzERXLVEUYMRSRI TYPTW MR   ERH  VEXMSW % XSXEPP] GLPSVMRIJVII 8'* FPIEGLMRK WIUYIRGI GSRWMWXMRK SJ TVIWWYVM^IH TIVS\MHI WXEKI34 E TIVS\MHI WXEKI 4 ERH X[S MRXIVQIHMEXI5 WXEKIW 5  345  4 [EW GEVVMIH SYX [MXL EPP FIWX bagasse pulps. O/P stages were performed in Teflon- PMRIH EYXSGPEZIW VSXEXMRK MR ER SMP FEXL 4 ERH 5 WXEKIW[IVI TIVJSVQIH MR TSP]IXL]PIRI FEKW WYFQIVKIH MRER EKMXEXMRK [EXIV FEXL %JXIV IEGL FPIEGLMRK XVIEXQIRXXLITYPTW[IVIXLSVSYKLP][EWLIH[MXLHIMSRMWIH [EXIV 9RFPIEGLIH ERH FPIEGLIH TYPT GLEVEGXIVMWXMGWERH WXVIRKXL TVSTIVXMIW [IVI HIXIVQMRIH F]8%44-ERH +IVQER >IPPGLIQMRK 7XERHEVHW % .SOVSQMPP [EW YWIH JSV FIEXMRK  6IWYPXW ERH HMWGYWWMSR The shape of bagasse fibres resembles that of most KVEWWIW [MXL MXW REVVS[ XETIVMRK IRHW 8LI EZIVEKI fibre length of 1.7mm was just above the upper 8EFPI 'LIQMGEP GSQTSWMXMSR SJ HITMXLIH FEKEWWI JVSQ HMJJIVIRX PSGEXMSRW TIVGIRX GSQTSRIRX SV WSPYFPI SR SZIRHV] FEKEWWI7TIGMIW 3VMKMRVIJIVIRGI%WL 7MPMGE 7SPYFPIW 'IPPYPSWI/YVWGLRIVz,SJJIV 4IRXSWERW 0MKRMR 'IPPYPSWIPMKRMR,SX [EXIV  2E3, )XLERSPzFIR^IRI&EKEWWI 7YHER         7YHER E  RE       97%  F  RE     G   97%  F  RE     G   1I\MGS H  RE    I  J    )K]TX  K z RE z RE z z G z RE RERE RSX EZEMPEFPI E +EFMV ERH /LVMWXSZE   F %XGLMWSR  G 'VSWW&IEZIR GIPPYPSWI H ;ERK ERH 4EXX  I ']GPSLI\IRIIXLERSP J  %PTLEGIPPYPSWI K -FVELMQ IX EP   4 /LVMWXSZE IX EP  -RHYWXVMEP 'VSTW ERH 4VSHYGXW   i  range for hardwoods (0.7–1.6mm). The narrow fibres [MHXL  Q ERH PYQIR  Q ERH XLMR GIPP [EPP m) were reflected in their good flexibility coef-ficient (62), indicating their ability to collapse easilyand to form interfibre bonding important for tensile WXVIRKXL 8LI ZIV] LMKL JIPXMRK TS[IV  MQTPMIWKSSH XIEV WXVIRKXL ERH XLI PS[IV XLER YRMX 6YROIP VEXMS MRHMGEXIW XLIMV KSSH WYMXEFMPMX] JSV TYPTMRK 8LI fibre of bamboo 3 EF]WWMRMGE YWIH JSV FPIRHMRK [MXL bagassehadaveragefibrelength(1.5–2.9mm)thatwas 8EFPI &EKEWWI TYPTMRK GSRHMXMSRW ERH YRFPIEGLIH TYPT IZEPYEXMSR4YPTMRK TVSGIWW GSSO GSHI 7SHE 7SHEz%5 %7z%5&EK &EK &EK &EK4YTMRK GSRHMXMSRW%GXMZI EPOEPM EW 2E  3             'LIQMGEPW VEXMS  %RXLVEUYMRSRI  2MP         0MUYSVXSFEKEWWI VEXMS    1E\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI  '    8MQI XS QE\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI QMR    8MQI EX QE\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI QMR    4YPT ]MIPH8SXEP ]MIPH             7GVIIRIH ]MIPH             6INIGXW             4YPT IZEPYEXMSR:MWGSWMX] QPK    -73 FVMKLXRIWW             /ETTE RYQFIV            -RMXMEP TYPT JVIIRIWW 76          &IEXMRK XMQI QMR 9RFIEXIR            %TTEVIRX HIRWMX] KGQ   9RFIEXIR                                    6YRREFMPMX] JEGXSV 9RFIEXIR                                    8IRWMPI MRHI\ 2QK 9RFIEXIR                                    8IEV MRHI\ Q2Q  K 9RFIEXIR                                    &YVWX MRHI\ O4EQ  K 9RFIEXIR                                     Light scattering coefficient (m  OK 9RFIEXIR                                    'LIQMGEP GLEVKIW ERH TYPT ]MIPH EVI KMZIR EW TIVGIRX SR SZIRHV] FEKEWWI   4 /LVMWXSZE IX EP  -RHYWXVMEP 'VSTW ERH 4VSHYGXW   i QSVI MR XLI PS[IV WSJX[SSH VERKI zQQ 8LIWQEPP PYQIR  m) and fibre diameter (14.3 Q EW[IPP XLI VEXLIV XLMGO [EPPW  m) defined them aslong and stiff fibres. The low flexibility coefficient of   MQTSVXERX JSV FSRHMRK WXVIRKXL ZIV] LMKL JIPXMRK TS[IV  ERH 6YROIP VEXMS  TVIHMGXIH LMKL XIEVWXVIRKXL FYX VIPEXMZIP] PS[ XIRWMPI WXVIRKXL ERH WSQI what difficult pulping ( /LVMWXSZE IX EP MR TVIWW8LIGLIQMGEPGSQTSWMXMSRSJHITMXLIHFEKEWWIJVSQ7YHER MW WSQI[LEX HMJJIVIRX XS XLI WEQTPIW JVSQ SXLIVKISKVETLMGEP PSGEXMSRW 8EFPI  8LMW GER FI XVEGIH  FEGO XS HMJJIVIRGIW MR LEVZIWXMRK WXSVEKI HITMXLMRKERH MWSPEXMSR EW [IPP MR XLI LEFMXEXW SJ XLI VE[ QEXIVMEPW IQTPS]IH 8LI EWL GSRXIRXSJMW MR XLI RSVQEPVERKIzJSVXVSTMGEPLEVH[SSHW6]HLSPQ8LI LMKL I\XVEGXMZIW GSRXIRX [MXLMR XLI PMQMXW JSV XVSTMGEP [SSH WTIGMIW MRHMGEXIH XLI TVIWIRGI SJ WSPYFPI polysaccharides andphenolics, andwill be reflected in LMKLIV EPOEPM GSRWYQTXMSR MR TYPTMRK8LI 7YHERIWI FEKEWWILEH ZIV] KSSH GIPPYPSWI GSRXIRXERHGSQTEVEXMZIP]XS[SSHPS[PMKRMRGSRXIRX  8LI JEZSYVEFPI GIPPYPSWIXSPMKRMR VEXMSSJ  TVIHMGXIH LMKL ]MIPHW F] XLI EPOEPMRI TYPTMRKQIXLSHW EX QSHIVEXI EPOEPM GLEVKI 2YQIVSYW GSSOW [IVI GEVVMIH SYX ETTP]MRK XLIEFSZIQIRXMSRIH GSSOMRK TVSGIWWIW 8LI TYPTMRK GSRHMXMSRW ERH VIWYPXW SJ XLI STXMQEP GSSOW [MXL VIKEVH XS the degree of delignification to yieldratio are shown in 8EFPI 7SHE TYPTMRK SJ FEKEWWI EX QMPH GSSOMRK GSRHMXMSR&EK GEVVMIH SYX EW VIJIVIRGI GSSO [MXL ER EGXMZIEPOEPM PIZIP SJ  EW 2E  3 SR SZIR HV] VE[ QEXIVMEP QMR LIEXMRK YT XMQI XS XLI QE\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI SJ  ' ERH QMR GSSOMRK XMQIKEZI WGVIIRIH  TYPT]MIPHSJERHEWXMPPVEXLIVLMKLOETTERYQFIVSJ9RHIVLEVWLIVGSRHMXMSRWQMRGSSOMRKXMQIEX  ' XLI OETTE RYQFIV GSYPH SRP] QEVKMREPP] FIVIHYGIH ERH XLI WGVIIRIH ]MIPH HVSTTIH XS  FYXXLI TYPT WLS[IH QYGL LMKLIV XIEV WXVIRKXL 8LI EHHMXMSR SJ  ERXLVEUYMRSRI XS XLI GSSOMRK PMUYSV EXPS[IV EGXMZI EPOEPM GLEVKI SJ  ERH QMR GSSOMRK XMQI EX  ' KEZI E WGVIIRIH ]MIPH SJ  EXE PS[IV OETTE RYQFIV SJ  8LI LMKLIV WIPIGXMZMX]SJ WSHEz%5 TYPTMRK GSYPH FI EXXVMFYXIH XS XLI TVIWIVZEXMSR SJ XLI TSP]WEGGLEVMHIW F] XLI ERXLVEUYMRSRI Further, the beneficial effect of anthraquinone additionwas reflected in the higher pulp viscosity of 982ml/g,indicating less damage of cellulose at better delignifi- *MK  8IRWMPI WXVIRKXLFIEXMRK HIKVII VIPEXMSRWLMT JSV YRFPIEGLIH ERH FPIEGLIH FEKEWWI TYPTW  4 /LVMWXSZE IX EP  -RHYWXVMEP 'VSTW ERH 4VSHYGXW   i 8EFPI &EKEWWI ERH 3 EF]WWMRMGE %7z%5 TYPTW FPIRHMRK4YPTMRK TVSGIWW %7z%54YPT GSHI 3\] 3\]&EK 3\]&EK 3\]&EK &EK&PIRH VEXMS     4YTMRK GSRHMXMSRW%GXMZI EPOEPM EW 2E  3     'LIQMGEPW VEXMS  %RXLVEUYMRSRI     0MUYSVXSQEXIVMEP VEXMS  1E\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI  '  8MQI XS QE\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI QMR  8MQI EX QE\MQYQ XIQTIVEXYVI QMR  4YPT ]MIPH8SXEP ]MIPH     7GVIIRIH ]MIPH     6INIGXW     4YPT IZEPYEXMSR:MWGSWMX] QPK  -73 FVMKLXRIWW     /ETTE RYQFIV    -RMXMEP TYPT JVIIRIWW 76     &IEXMRK XMQI QMR 9RFIEXIR                  RE RE RE%TTEVIRX HIRWMX] KGQ   9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE6YRREFMPMX] JEGXSV 9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE8IRWMPI MRHI\ 2QK 9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE8IEV MRHI\ Q2Q  K 9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE&YVWX MRHI\ O4EQ  K 9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE Light scattering coefficient (m  OK 9RFIEXIR                                  RE RE RE'LIQMGEP GLEVKIW ERH TYPT ]MIPH EVI KMZIR EW TIVGIRX SR SZIR HV] QEXIVMEP RE RSX EZEMPEFPI
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