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Study Questions on the Action Potential: 4. What causes an axon potential to occur at the axon hillock? 7. What happens at threshold? 8.   What   happens   if   there   is   a   weak   stimulus   at   the  axon  hillock   and  threshold is not reached? 9. Do action potentials always have the same amplitude and the same  duration? 11. What happens to sodium voltage­gated channels at threshold? 12. Explain how the positive feedback loop maintains the rising phase of  the action potential. 14. T
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  Study Questions on the Action Potential: 4. What causes an axon potential to occur at the axon hillock?7. What happens at threshold?8. What happens if there is a weak stimulus at the axon hillock andthreshold is not reached?9. Do action potentials always have the same amplitude and the sameduration?11. What happens to sodium voltage-gated channels at threshold?12. Explain how the positive feedback loop maintains the rising phase of the action potential.14. The rising phase of the action potential ends when the positivefeedback loop is interrupted. What two processes break the loop?15. Describe the two gates on the voltage-gated sodium channels?16. When does the voltage-sensitive gate open?17. What is the function of the time-sensitive inactivation gate?18. What happens to the voltage gated sodium channels at the peak of the action potential?19. When do the voltage-gated potassium channels open?20. What happens when the voltage-gated potassium channels open andthe potassium moves out of the cell?21. When does repolarization occur? What happens to the membranepotential?22. What is hyperpolarization?23. Why does hyperpolarization occur?  25. During the action potential, when does sodium permeability increaserapidly?a. during repolarization b. during the rising phase of the action potentialc. during hyperpolarization d. during repolarization26. During the action potential, when does sodium permeability decreaserapidly?a. during repolarization b. during the rising phase of the action potentialc. during hyperpolarization d. during repolarization27. During the action potential, when is potassium permeability thegreatest?a. during repolarization b. during the rising phase of the action potentialc. during hyperpolarization d. during repolarization28. During the action potential, when does potassium permeability decrease slowly?a. during repolarization b. during the rising phase of the action potentialc. during hyperpolarization d. during repolarization29. The rapid increase in sodium permeability is responsible for _____.a. the repolarization of the cell b. the hyperpolarizationc. the rising phase of the action potential30. The rapid decrease in sodium permeability and simultaneousincrease in potassium permeability is responsible for _____.a. the repolarization of the cell b. the hyperpolarizationc. the rising phase of the action potential31. The slow decline in potassium permeability is responsible for _____.a. the repolarization of the cell b. the hyperpolarizationc. the rising phase of the action potential  32. Which part of the graph to the right corresponds to the following:hyperpolarizationdepolarizationrest initiation of repolarizationrepolarization33. Which part of the graph to the right corresponds to: A time when voltage-gated sodiumchannels reset to the closed state.Potassium channels continue toopen. A time when voltage-gated sodium andpotassium channels are closed. A time when voltage-gated sodiumchannels begin to inactivate and voltage-gated potassium channels begin to open. A time when some voltage-gatedpotassium channels remain open,resulting in movement of potassiumout of the cell. A time when voltage-gated sodiumchannels open rapidly, resulting inmovement of sodium into the cell.34. (Page 13.) Which phase of the action potential does the diagram below best correspond to?a. rest b. depolarizationc. peak d. repolarization e.hyperpolarization  39. What is the absolute refractory period?40. Why can't a neuron generate another action potential during theabsolute refractory period?41. What is the relative refractory period?42. Why is it more difficult for a neuron to generate another actionpotential during the relative refractory period?43. Which portion of the graph to theright corresponds to the absoluterefractory period?44. What letter on this graph to the right corresponds to the relative refractory period?46. How is an action potential propagateddown the axon in an unmyelinatedneuron?47. What is conduction velocity?48. What two factors does conduction velocity depend on?49What is the effect of axon diameter on conduction velocity?50. What is the effect of myelin on conduction velocity?51. Why do myelinated axons conduct action potentials faster than nonmyelinated axons?
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