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1. Competition Act, 2002 2. Car sold at crash price OPEC deciding the oil prices Microsoft slapped heavy fine Luftansa Cargo for price fixation 3.…
  • 1. Competition Act, 2002
  • 2. Car sold at crash price OPEC deciding the oil prices Microsoft slapped heavy fine Luftansa Cargo for price fixation
  • 3. <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Is “a situation in a market in which firms or sellers independently strive for the buyers’ patronage in order to achieve a particular business objective for example, profits, sales or market share” (World Bank, 1999) </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>“ Competition” is an age-old phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Competition: </li></ul><ul><li>Companies : Efficiency, cost-saving operations, better utilization of resources, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Consumer : Wider choice of goods at competitive prices </li></ul><ul><li>The Government : Generates revenue </li></ul><ul><li>BUT………………………… </li></ul>
  • 5. … .Benefits of Competition <ul><li>……… all these benefits are lost if Competition is </li></ul><ul><li>UNFAIR or NON-EXISTANT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of CARS in the olden days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTNL Monopoly : The position today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airlines : INDIAN AIRLINES : JET : SAHARA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Railways : The monopoly continues…. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>It is not necessary that there are a large number of producers/suppliers to have competition conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>A single producer can exist and provide a competitive atmosphere provided entry of new firms is easy and not costly. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry barriers can be due to the market position of incumbent firms, legal barriers or strategic barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incumbent firms may use their power as “first Movers” to block entry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal barriers include licensing and other Government regulations </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Contd… <ul><ul><li>Strategic barriers are generally erected by incumbent firms in the form of artificial and sudden price reduction with a view to thwarting new entry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contestability of markets ensure competitive conditions in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is expected to enhance allocated and productive efficiency so as to maximize economic welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly (market) power tends to lead to inefficient allocation of sources and discourages innovation or introduction of better technology. </li></ul>
  • 8. OBJECTIVES OF COMPETITION LAW & POLICY <ul><li>Promoting economic efficiency in both static and dynamic sense </li></ul><ul><li>protecting consumers from the undue exercise of market power </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating economic liberalization, including privatization. Deregulation and reduction of external trade barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving and promoting the sound development of a market economy </li></ul>
  • 9. OBJECTIVES OF COMPETITION LAW & POLICY <ul><li>ensuring fairness and equity in market place transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting the ‘public interest’ including in some cases considerations relating to industrial competitiveness and employment </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting opportunities for small and medium business </li></ul>
  • 10. Competition Law <ul><li>It is a tool to implement and enforce competition policy and to prevent and punish anti-competitive business practices by firms and unnecessary Government interference in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition Law generally covers 3 areas: </li></ul><ul><li>– Anti - Competitive Agreements, e.g., cartels, </li></ul><ul><li>– Abuse of Dominant Position by enterprises, e.g., predatory pricing, barriers to entry and </li></ul><ul><li>– Regulation of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As). </li></ul>
  • 11. Contd… <ul><li>The need for Competition Law arises because market can suffer from failures and distortions, and various players can resort to anti-competitive activities such as cartels, abuse of dominance etc. which adversely impact economic efficiency and consumer welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus there is need for Competition Law, and a Competition Watchdog with the authority for enforcing Competition Law. </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Elements of Competition Policy </li></ul><ul><li>• Putting in place a set of Policies that enhance competition in local and national markets. </li></ul><ul><li>• A Law designed to prevent anti competitive business practices and unnecessary government intervention. </li></ul>
  • 13. Competition Policy <ul><li>It includes Reforms in certain Policy areas to make these more pro-competition:- </li></ul><ul><li>• Industrial policy </li></ul><ul><li>• Trade policy </li></ul><ul><li>• Privatization/disinvestment </li></ul><ul><li>• Economic Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>• State aids </li></ul><ul><li>• Labour policy </li></ul><ul><li>• Other such policies </li></ul>
  • 14. Industrial Policy <ul><li>Industrial Policy has to address and reform licensing requirements, restrictions on capacities, or on foreign technology tie ups, guidelines on location of industries, reservations for small scale industry, etc. These adversely affect free competition in the market. </li></ul>
  • 15. Trade Policy <ul><li>Trade policy has important implications for development of competition in the markets. Measures for liberalisation of trade promote greater competition e.g. reducing tariffs, removal of quotas/physical controls, investment controls, conditions relating to local content etc. </li></ul>
  • 16. Privatization/Disinvestment <ul><li>Thus privatization of state owned enterprises is important element of competition policy. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in privatization/ disinvestment process, care is to be taken that state monopoly is not replaced by private monopoly. </li></ul>
  • 17. Privatization/Disinvestment <ul><li>Empirical research has found that state- owned enterprises generally tend to be less efficient than private owned firms, for reasons such as manager compensation, low incentives, lack of direct accountability, hard budget constraints for managers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>State owned enterprises are generally insulated from market forces and receive protection/benefits such as government imposed barriers to entry, price regulation and subsidies. </li></ul>
  • 18. Economic Regulations <ul><li>New legislation and regulations to promote competition and to bring about restructuring of major industrial sectors is essential. Legislation to aim at separating natural monopoly elements from potentially competitive activities, and the regulatory functions from commercial functions, and also create several competing entities through restructuring of essential competition activities and to create a competitive environment . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>– Electricity sector </li></ul><ul><li>– Telecommunications sector </li></ul><ul><li>– Ports </li></ul>
  • 19. State Aids <ul><li>Several state aids create unequal operating conditions for businesses. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>– Subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>– Tax rebates </li></ul><ul><li>– Preferential loans </li></ul><ul><li>– Capital injection </li></ul><ul><li>Experience suggests that such policy measures rarely have successful results and destroy incentives for firms to become efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary specific state- aid for well stated public purpose can be justified. </li></ul>
  • 20. Evolution of Competition Law <ul><li>Before MRTP Act came into force (1970), limited provisions existed under : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Indian Contract Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directive Principles of State Policy (Non-enforceable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The MRTP Act brought in a four-pronged thrust : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of economic power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive Trade Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monopolistic Trade Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair Trade Practices </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. MRTPs vis-à-vis Competition Act <ul><li>Under the Competition Act : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No provision for Unfair Trade Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Consumer Courts will have jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pending cases will be continued by MRTPC for 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 2 years : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All cases (except Disparagement Cases) will be transferred to National Commission under CPA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Disparagement Cases will be transferred to Competition Commission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Status of the Competition Commission <ul><li>• It is a body corporate </li></ul><ul><li>• It has Regulatory and quasi-judicial powers; functions through Benches </li></ul><ul><li>• Each Bench shall consist of at least two Members and one of such Members must be a judicial Member </li></ul>
  • 23. Suo Moto Inquiry <ul><li>• Commission has suo moto power to enquire whether an Anti-Competitive Agreement or Abuse of Dominant Position causes or is likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition </li></ul><ul><li>This power must be exercised within one year from the date combination has taken effect </li></ul>
  • 24. Anti-competitive Agreements <ul><li>These are agreements which cause or are likely </li></ul><ul><li>to cause an appreciable adverse effect on </li></ul><ul><li>competition within India: </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>These are between and among competitors who are at the same stage of production, supply, distribution, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These are presumed to be illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: cartels, bid rigging, collusive bidding, sharing of </li></ul><ul><li>markets, etc. </li></ul>
  • 25. Anti-Competitive Agreements <ul><li>Vertical Agreements: </li></ul><ul><li>• Vertical Agreements are between parties at different stages of production, supply, distribution, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>• These are not presumed illegal; are subject to rule of reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: tie-in arrangements, exclusive supply/distribution agreements, refusal to deal. </li></ul>
  • 26. Agreement <ul><li>Any arrangement or understanding or action in concert – </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not such arrangement or understanding is formal or in writing </li></ul><ul><li>Or whether or not such understanding or arrangement is intended to be enforceable by legal proceedings </li></ul>
  • 27. Adverse effect on competition <ul><li>Creation of barriers to entry </li></ul><ul><li>Driving existing competitors out of market </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit to Scientific and technical knowhow </li></ul>
  • 28. Agreements presumed to have adverse effect <ul><li>Directly or indirectly determines purchase or sales price </li></ul><ul><li>Limits or controls production, supply, technical know how </li></ul><ul><li>Shares the market or sources of production </li></ul><ul><li>Results in bid rigging or collusive bidding </li></ul>
  • 29. CCI orders against Anti-competitive agreements <ul><li>Penalty equal to three times the amount of profit made out of such agreement or 10% of average turnover of the cartel for preceding three years whichever is higher </li></ul><ul><li>Modification directed to the agreement </li></ul>
  • 30. Powers of Competition Commission as Regards Agreements <ul><li>After the inquiry into the Agreement, Competition Commission can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct parties to discontinue the agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prohibit parties from re-entering such agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct modification of the agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impose penalty upto 10% of average turnover of the enterprise </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS <ul><li>Competition Act </li></ul><ul><li>The prohibition on horizontal and vertical agreements do not restrict the right of any person to impose reasonable restrictions to protect any of his rights under the Copyright Act, the Patents Act, the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, Designs Act </li></ul>
  • 32. For those who would want to know more about anti competitive agreements --- pls. visit the site given below; it is a good ppt by CCI <ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 33. Abuse of Dominance <ul><li>“ Dominant position” is defined as a position of strength which enables the enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to operate independently of competitive forces in the market, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to affect its competitors or consumers in its favor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No mathematical or statistical formula is adopted to “measure” dominance – </li></ul>
  • 34. Abuse of Dominant Position <ul><li>Includes practices like: </li></ul><ul><li>• Unfair or discriminatory conditions or prices, </li></ul><ul><li>• Limiting or restricting production or technical/scientific development, </li></ul><ul><li>• Denial of market access, and </li></ul><ul><li>• Predatory pricing. </li></ul>
  • 35. Power of the Competition Commission <ul><ul><li>After inquiry into abuse of dominant position, the Competition Commission can order: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discontinuance of abuse of dominant position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>impose a penalty upto 10% of the average turnover of the enterprise </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 36. Combinations Regulation <ul><li>Combinations, in terms of the meaning given to them in the Act, include mergers, amalgamations, acquisitions. </li></ul><ul><li>in order to establish whether the higher concentration in the market resulting from the merger will increase the possibility of collusive or unilaterally harmful behavior, it must first be established as to what the relevant market is </li></ul>
  • 37. Contd… <ul><li>Horizontal Mergers </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Mergers </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerate Mergers </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Notification </li></ul><ul><li>The requirements for prior notification </li></ul>
  • 38. Relevant Product Market <ul><li>Physical characteristics or end-use of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Price of goods or service </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of in-house production </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of specialized producers </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of industrial products </li></ul>
  • 39. Factors to be considered while determining Dominance <ul><li>Dominant position linked to a host of factors </li></ul><ul><li>Market share of enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Size and resources of enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Size and importance of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial advantage of enterprise over competitors </li></ul>
  • 40. Relevant Geographic market <ul><li>Relevant geographic market can be defined as the area in which products are available at approximately the same price given transport costs and any increase in demand can be met from neighboring areas profitably </li></ul>
  • 41. Mergers and Acquisitions <ul><li>Commission is expected to regulate “Combinations”, i.e., large mergers, acquisitions, etc. likely to have appreciable adverse effect on competition. </li></ul><ul><li>• Threshold: </li></ul><ul><li>For single enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>– Assets > Rs.1000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>– Turnover > Rs.3000 crores </li></ul>
  • 42. Mergers and Acquisitions <ul><li>Threshold: </li></ul><ul><li>For group of enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>– Assets > Rs.4000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>– Turnover > Rs.12000 crores </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, th
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