Chapter 15 ID's

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Chapter 15 Identifications 1. Witches: More than 100,000 people in Europe were prosecuted on charges of Witchcraft. Usually confessed to a number of “sinister” practices after torture and sometimes voluntarily. Old women were subject to suspicion because they no longer had charity from the community so they survived off of selling hers potions and remedies. B) These women were handy scapegoats when problems arose. It gave people a common enemy in times of crisis when things were uncertain. 2. 30
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  Chapter 15 Identifications1. Witches: More than 100,000 people in Europe were prosecuted on charges of  Witchcraft. Usually confessed to a number of “sinister” practices after torture andsometimes voluntarily. Old women were subject to suspicion because they no longerhad charity from the community so they survived off of selling hers potions andremedies.B) These women were handy scapegoats when problems arose. It gave people acommon enemy in times of crisis when things were uncertain.2. 30 Years War: it was a struggle between militant Catholicism and militant Calvinism. It was not just caused by religious affairs, it was caused by secularism aswell. Took place in the Germanic lands of the HRE and became a European widestruggle.B) It was considered the last of the religious wars. Made way for the Peace of Westphalia which added Calvinism as a legal option for denomination. Francegained parts of western Germany, part of Alsace, and the three cities of metz.3. Gustavus Adolphus: King of Sweden (1611-1635). A military genius, he brought adisciplined and well equipped Swedish army to northern Germany. He was a devout Lutheran he was killed in battle.B) He gave Sweden its moment of glory in terms of military accomplishment inEurope. He made Sweden into a great Baltic power.4. Peace of Westphalia: took place in 1648 it ended the 30 years war. Peace wasrestored between all states except Spain and France. France acquired much of Alsace. Sweden and Brandenburg made territorial gains along the Baltic. Hollandand Switzerland gained independence from the Austrian Habsburgs. Calvinists weregranted recognition. Protestants were allowed to retain lands taken before 1624. It ended the Habsburg drive to assert absolute authority over the German regions. 300German states found that peace symbolized the victory of the small sovereign states.Habsburg encirclement of France was no longer a problem. England and theNetherlands increased their sea control and great commercial growth resulted inboth. Catholics and Protestants realized that they could not exterminate each other.5. Conscript Standing Armies: Developed by Gustavus Adolphus. It was notable forflexibility of its tactics. Infantry Brigades consisted of equal numbers of musketeers,and pikemen standing six men deep. All rows of infantry fired at once. Infantry wasprimarily defensive and cavalry was primarily offensive and mobile.B) The need for more general resources to keep this style moving led to more taxeson the state and large bureaucracies being made to supervise the military.6. Absolutism: the sovereign power or ultimate authority rested in the hands of aking who claimed to rule by divine right. See chart   B) Gave kings the power to make laws, tax, administer justice, control statesadministrative systems, and determine foreign policy.7. Bishop Jacques Bossuet: wrote the Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. Basically stated that government and rulers were created/established bygod; therefore, divine rulers did not have to answer to anybody except god.B) basically told kings that god had licensed them to do whatever the heck theywanted.8. “ Divine Right”: the authority to make laws, tax, administer justice, control statesadministrative systems, and determine foreign policy. They had this power because they were “chosen by god”. Hence the term divine. 9. Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin: Richelie u was Louis XIII’s chief minister from 1624 to 1642. He initiated various policies that eventually strengthened the powerof the Monarchy. Richelieu was rather incapable in financial matters. French Debt continued to go up under him. Marzarin was Richelieu ’s successor. Marzarinattempted to carry on Richelieu’s policies until his death in 1661. Marzarin disliked all elements of the French population. Most important event during his rule was therevolt of the Fronde.10. The Fronde: series of revolt by the French nobility, against the crown, that  started as a protest against mazarin’s high taxes. Louis the 14 was wisked out of  paris in the middle of the night, hidden, in order to prevent kidnapping. Chaos ledthe French subjects to look towards the French monarchy for stability.B) French nobility was loosing their power so they revolted against the monarchy11. Louis 14 th   – see sheets12. Edit of Fontainebleau: Louis the 14 threw out the edict of Nantes ( henry the 4 th  gave the hugenots religious rights in France) because he wanted religiousuniformity, Hugenots lost there religious rights and were forced to Catholicism.13. Versaille: Louis the 14 created it because he hated Paris, he hated powerfulnobles, and he loved uniformity. He was obsessed with being absolute andcontrolled. See book page. 14. jean-Baptiste Colbert a.) Louis XIV’s controller general of finances; sought to increase the wealth and power of  France through mercantilist policies which stressed government regulation of economicactivities to benefit the state. His economic policies ultimately were defeating because themore money he got, the fast Louis spent it especially to engage in war. The tax burdenfell increasingly on the peasants.b.) His policies are given credit for developing French manufacturing.  15. Louis XIV's warsa.) Under the secretary of war, Francois- Michael Le Tellier, the marquis of Louvois,France developed a professional army numbering 100,000 in peacetime and 400,000 intime of war. Louis waged war 4 ways between 1667 and 1713:1*1667- invaded the Spanish Netherlands and the Franche Comte: triple alliance with theDutch, English, and Swedes forced Louis to sue for peace in 1668 and accept a few townsin the Spanish Netherlands for his efforts; never forgave Dutch for forming alliance.2*1672: invaded the United Provinces- his victories led Brandenburg, Spain, and HolyRoman Empire to form a new coalition that forced Louis to end the Dutch War bymaking peace at Nimwegen in 1678. France did not gain the French territory but it did receive Franche Comte from Spain to stimulate Louis’s appetite for even more land.  *Louis moved eastward against the HRE: The gradual annexation of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine followed by the occupation of the city of Strasbourg, a move that ledto a widespread protest and the formation of a new coalition. (League of Augsburgconsisting of Spain, HRE, England, United Provinces, Sweden)3*(1689-1697) Creation of the League of Augsburg led to the War of the League of Augsburg which brought an 8 year struggle along with economic depression and famineto France. Treaty of Ryswick forced Louis to give up most of his conquests in the empirebut he was allowed to keep Strasbourg and part of Alsace.4* War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713) over the Succession to the Spanish throne;End came with the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 and Rastatt in 1714. Confirmed Philip V(Bourbon dynasty) as the Spanish ruler, but affirmed that the thrones of Spain and Francehad to remain separate.16. Peace of Utrecht- 1713a.) One of the treaties that ended the War of Spanish Succession along with the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714. Confirmed Philip V (Bourbon dynasty) as the Spanish ruler, but affirmedthat the thrones of Spain and France had to remain separate. The Spanish Netherlands,Milan, and Naples were given to Austria and the state of Brandenburg- Prussia gainedadditional territories. England received Gibraltar and the French possessions in Americaof Ne wfoundland, Hudson’s Bay Territory, and Nova Scotia. France remained a great power, but England emerged as a formidable naval force.17. Brandenburg-Prussiaa.) Gain additional territories from the Peace of Utrecht. Part of the HohenzollernDynasty. They began as margraves of Brandenburg and electors of the HRE. It was the inherited Duchy of Prussia. They became states because of Margrave Frederick III’sservice to the Habsburg HRE’s Leopold 1 during the war of Spanish succession. B) Became one of the big time players in Europe due to its military strength. Its militarystrength equaled that of other military powers such as France. Established permanentstanding army. Followed mercantilism  18. Frederick William the Great ElectorWas the absolute leader of Brandenburg- Prussia. Was granted by Habsburg Leopold 1the duchy of Prussia in return for his service during the war of Spanish succession;Favored nobles in Brandenburg-Prussia over the manufacturers. Spent 50% of the country’s revenue on military financing. Was the first of the Hohenzollerns inBrandenburg-Prussia.B) Made Brandenburg- Prussia into a force of power in Europe19. The HohenzollernsThe ruling Dynasty of Brandenburg-Prussia; started by Frederick William The GreatElector. Was the ruling dynasty of Brandenburg- Prussia through the 19 th Century.B) They held power throughout Europe, and were a force to be reckoned with20. Treaty of Karlowitz 1699It was a result of the Austrians defeating the Ottomans in 1687. It said that Austria hadcontrol of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia. B) Established an Austrian “Empire” in southeastern Europe.21. The Romanovs 1613-1917The line of succession was very different from the rest of Europe, during the Romanovdynasty. Women would often become rulers of Russia simply by marrying into the familyand taking the name Romanov. The first Romanov ruler of Russia was Michael(grandnep hew of Ivan the Terrible’s 1 st wife). Power in Romanov Russia was based onthree things; Nobility, Military, and the Russian Orthodox Church. If the Monarch lostthe support of one or more of these institutions, he/she lost power.B) One of the most successful ruling Dynasties of Russia. Gave way to some of the mostnotable rulers in Europe such as Peter the Great. (see green chart).22. Russian serfdomTechnically everybody had the opportunity to become a noble in Peter the G reat’s Russia.However, high taxes were imposed on these peasants (as usual) due to Peter’s endless military needs. This meant that the peasants were continually oppressed as was the casein most of Western Europe. The worst time to be a Russian peasant or serf was duringthe building of Saint Petersburg. Peasants would often have to serve 25 years in themilitary.B) The building of Saint Petersburg caused thousands of peasants to loose their lives dueto exhaustion, mal-nurishemet, and disease.23. The Orthodox ChurchHad way too much power in Russia. Was very corrupted when peter the Great was out of the country. This isn’t really mentioned in the chapter.  B) Had the power to make the ruler of Russia loose its power given that it was one of thethree vital institutions in Russian government.
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