Book Review of Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice in Applied Linguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities (Studies in Applied Linguistics)

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Book Review of Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice in Applied Linguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities (Studies in Applied Linguistics)
  This article was downloaded by: [Kathleen Ahrens]On: 24 July 2012, At: 22:03Publisher: Psychology PressInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Metaphor and Symbol Publication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information: Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice inApplied Linguistics, Social Sciences andthe Humanities by Lynn Cameron andRobert Maslen (Eds.) Kathleen Ahrens aa Language Centre, Hong Kong Baptist UniversityVersion of record first published: 11 Jul 2012 To cite this article: Kathleen Ahrens (2012): Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice in AppliedLinguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities by Lynn Cameron and Robert Maslen (Eds.), Metaphorand Symbol, 27:3, 259-261 To link to this article: PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use: article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representationthat the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of anyinstructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primarysources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly orindirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.  BOOK REVIEWS 259 be revivified by those who wanted to “turn a blind eye to its actual genocidal target level imple-mentation” (p. 67). Chapter 5, the last in Part I, addresses a number of methodological factorsin order to create a link with Part II of the volume, drawing, most interestingly, upon Croft andCruise’s notion of the “life history” of a metaphor and its “two-step” development of “innovationand selection-propagation” (p. 76).The second part of Musolff’s monograph situates the body politic within a tradition of body-state imagery that has its srcin in pre-Socratic thinking and traces its various manifestations inWestern culture through the Middle Ages into the twentieth century. Pertinent illustrations aretaken from, among other works, John of Salisbury’s Policraticus , Christine de Pizan’s Livrede Corps de Policie , Shakespeare’s Coriolanus , Machiavelli’s Discourses , Bacon’s Essays ,Hobbes’s Leviathan and Rousseau’s Social Contract  . The German history of the metaphor com-plex is presented in Chapter 9, starting with Martin Luther, traversing the age of Enlightenment,and finally looking at two early twentieth-century reassessments of Hobbes’s monster symbol-ism, the first by Leo Strauss and the second by Carl Schmitt. The latter was a Nazi party memberwhose attempt to “recruit Hobbes’s Leviathan for the theory of the ‘total’ state” was based uponflawed assumptions and ultimately failed (p. 136).Body-based metaphors are among the longest lived and most robust image systems in politicaldiscourse. Musolff’s historical approach to their analysis lays bare the reasons for the lasting cog-nitive effectiveness of such metaphors and suggests that a similar examination of similar systemswould be fruitful. By presenting the history of the metaphor complex after the more specific anal-ysis of its use by the National Socialist propaganda machine, the author has been able to providepertinent cross-references to the conceptual elements taken up by National Socialists and thusdemonstrate the cognitive import of body-based imagery for the shaping of racist attitudes bothduring and since the Nazi era.  Metaphor Analysis: Research Practice in Applied Linguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities. Lynn Cameron and Robert Maslen (Eds.), London, UK: Equinox, 2010. 298 pages,$34 (paperback), ISBN 9781845534479.Reviewed by Kathleen Ahrens  Language Centre, Hong Kong Baptist  Cameron and Maslen’s new volume brings together the works of researchers working on a dis-course dynamics approach to metaphor analysis. This approach analyzes metaphors based onactual discourse, in contrast with Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1993),which relies primarily on formulated example sentences. Consisting of fourteen chapters and onevery short concluding chapter, an appendix that explains the two primary data sources used inmore detail, references and a short index, this volume is an important contribution to advancingthe methodology needed to analyze metaphors found in naturally occurring discourse.The volume itself is divided into four main sections: the papers in the first section introducemetaphor analysis, while three papers in the second section review theories of metaphors. The sixchapters in the third section are the heart of the volume and give concrete examples of metaphor    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   K  a   t   h   l  e  e  n   A   h  r  e  n  s   ]  a   t   2   2  :   0   3   2   4   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2  260 BOOK REVIEWS analysis using the discourse dynamic approach. The four chapters in the fourth section aim tobring all the work in the volume together.Section 1 contains two chapters. In Chapter 1, Cameron explains that metaphors can be viewedas linguistic, embodied, cognitive, affective, socio-cultural, or dynamic, depending upon the phe-nomenon that one is examining. She then presents a metaphor analysis of a conversation fromtwo speakers and discusses how to find metaphors and how to build metaphor groupings, empha-sizing the systematicity that becomes apparent in this type of analysis. She concludes with animportant list summarizing the questions that may be asked when reviewing the findings of pre-vious research as well as when devising one’s own studies on metaphor analysis. The secondchapter is a very compact annotated bibliography of six recent studies on metaphor, followed bya discussion of how these papers address (or fail to address) the questions presented in the firstchapter.The three chapters in Section 2 look at recent theories of metaphor. In Chapter 3, Deignanprovides an overview of metaphor analysis starting from the 1980s and explains the changes thathave occurred over the past 30 years in metaphor scholarship. In Chapter 4, Ritchie argues thatunderlying conceptual metaphors as postulated by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) are not necessarilyactivated, but instead there is a partial perceptual simulation associated with the vehicle (or targetdomain) that is more relevant to understanding the meaning in a conversation. In Chapter 5,Cameron returns to the questions asked at the end of Chapter 1 and answers them for a discoursedynamic approach. She then explains the discourse dynamics inherent in linguistic metaphor, anddelves into how meanings of metaphor can shift within a conversation.In Section 3 the reader is taken through the details of the methodology involving metaphoranalysis in a discourse dynamic approach. In Chapter 6, Low, Cameron and Maslen focus onidentifying metaphors. They then move step-by-step through the decisions that need to be madewhen identifying a metaphor, particularly focusing on where the vehicle term begins and ends.In Chapter 7, Cameron, Maslen and Low examine and exemplify how to group the metaphorvehicles and determine the evolution of groupings. They then highlight the types of systemsthat can be defined through such group, particularly metaphor framing and metaphor narratives.In Chapter 8, Cameron analyzes how local discourse interacts with metaphorical meanings inorder to discover how metaphor is used to express the values and ideas of a speaker. In Chapter 9,Deignan and Semino widen the data set to include multiple discourse events and demonstrate howcorpus software can carry out keyword searches for patterns of words across the data sets. Theyalso take the reader through word frequency analyses, concordance analyses, and contrast theadvantages of searching for metaphors by hand with a corpus-based approach. They also provideexamples of how the web-based software tool, Wmatrix, analyzes the frequency and keyness of semantic fields, allowing researchers to investigate those that may correspond to source domains.In Chapter 10, Robert Maslen discusses how to use Excel and other programs to examine the datacollected, how to maintain the trustworthiness of analyses over a large amount of data, and howto use tables and charts to best present data. In Chapter 11, Cienki analyzes how gestures canbe combined with metaphor analysis to express metaphors not expressed in speech, provide anexplicit reference, or express a different metaphor than the one that is spoken. However, he doesnote at the close of the chapter the “costs” associated with gestural-based metaphor research,including the difficulty in deciding when a gesture is being used metaphorically. As much of thisvolume strives to ascertain when a word form is being used metaphorically, the raising of this    D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   K  a   t   h   l  e  e  n   A   h  r  e  n  s   ]  a   t   2   2  :   0   3   2   4   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2  BOOK REVIEWS 261 very same question in terms of analyzing gestures shows how far metaphor research has comeand how far it still has to go.In Section 4 the researchers attempt to bring all the ideas presented in earlier chapters together.In Chapter 12, Low and Todd talk about guidelines for good practice in metaphor analysis,particularly when soliciting judgments about metaphors and when identifying and analyzingmetaphors—to my mind this chapter could easily be included in the third section. In Chapter 13,Rivers demonstrates how deliberate metaphor use and emotional reactions were linked in aresearch project on e-learning. In Chapter 14, Cameron and Maslen describe the results of usingtheir discourse-based approach to metaphor analysis in order to compare the perceptions of terror-ism experts with the opinions of general members of the public. For a chapter that brings togethermuchofwhathasbeensaidinthepreviouschapters,itisrathershort,simplylistingthemetaphorsthat officials and the public used when talking about terrorism. It would have been advantageousto have more discussion on these findings. In addition, in Chapter 15, the last chapter, the con-cluding remarks by Cameron and Maslen are also very succinct—only briefly summarizing whatthey did in this volume. In contrast with the care that the editors and authors take at the beginningand in the middle section of the book in terms of laying out their rationale, analyzing the prosand cons of competing theories, and deeply delving into the methodology, this last section seemsmore ad hoc. The strength of the work as a whole would have benefited from a more thoroughdiscussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the discourse dynamic approach to metaphoranalyses and would also have benefited from a comparison with other approaches to metaphoranalyses.In conclusion, while the authors of this volume favor looking at metaphors in discourse con-texts so as to understand sociocultural conventions, they also take into consideration the historicalcontext that has led to metaphors being analyzed on the basis of intuition. Reading the volume,one gets the sense that they would be quite willing to accept that metaphor analysis on differenttypes of data sets or using different methodologies may lead to different results, and this nuancedappreciation of alternate approaches is likely to aid the field of metaphor studies as a whole.The discourse dynamic approach is not competing head-on with other approaches, it is merelypointing out that there is a large set of data (i.e., discourse data) that has not yet been examinedadequately in terms of metaphor analysis.  Embodiment via Body Parts: Studies from Various Language and Cultures . Zouheir A. Maalej,& Ning Yu (Eds.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands / Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 2011, ix + 258 pages, $135 (hardcover), ISBN 9789027223852.Reviewed by Laura A. Cariola  Department of Linguistics and English Language Lancaster  Recent trends in linguistics and cognitive science reflect an increasing interest to explore therelationship between culture and language on the one hand, and the human mind and body onthe other. The edited volume Embodiment via Body Parts: Studies from Various Language and     D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   K  a   t   h   l  e  e  n   A   h  r  e  n  s   ]  a   t   2   2  :   0   3   2   4   J  u   l  y   2   0   1   2
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