Biology stpm new syllabus


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  • 2. NATIONAL EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY “Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a belief in and devotion to God. Such effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large.”
  • 3. FOREWORD This revised Biology syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use since the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examination will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made by the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the new system, the form six study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an examination at the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system. The main objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and learning orientation of form six so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in colleges and universities. The revision of the Biology syllabus incorporates current developments in biology studies to be more relevant to the current global developments. Biology is a science that deals with the study of living organisms. It is dynamic and affects every aspect of our daily lives, from food and health, to the responsibilities towards our environment. The cumulative discoveries and developments in biology have tremendously enhanced our understanding and perception towards both the unity and diversity of life. With this understanding, we have become more aware of our interdependence with our rich biodiversity and natural resources. The application of biology together with modern technologies leads to the evolution of biotechnology. Furthermore, the assessment tools of this syllabus consist of written papers and coursework. The written papers evaluate candidates’ knowledge and understanding of the subject, while the coursework provides an opportunity for candidates to trigger their inquisitive biological reasoning. This also enhances their understanding and application of biological sciences and develops the candidates’ soft skills. The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, grade description and specimen papers. The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Emeritus Dato’ Dr. Latiff bin Mohamad from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other committee members consist of university lecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, and experienced teachers who are teaching Biology. On behalf of MEC, I would like to thank the committee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be a guide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process. Chief Executive Malaysian Examinations Council
  • 4. CONTENTS Syllabus 964 Biology Page Aims 1 Objectives 1 Content First Term: Biological Molecules and Metabolism 2–8 Second Term: Physiology 9 – 15 Third Term: Ecology and Genetics 16 – 21 Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical) 22 Written Practical Test 23 Scheme of Assessment 24 – 25 Performance Descriptions 26 Reference Books 27 Specimen Paper 1 29 – 49 Specimen Paper 2 51 – 75 Specimen Paper 3 77 – 99 Specimen Experiment Paper 4 101 – 104 Specimen Paper 5 105 – 119
  • 5. SYLLABUS 964 BIOLOGY Aims This syllabus is designed to enhance candidates’ knowledge and understanding of biology and biological issues, to prepare and equip the candidates for their tertiary education, to pursue careers in related fields and to promote continuous awareness of the importance of biology in life. Objectives This syllabus enables candidates to: (a) understand the biological phenomena, principles and theories; (b) evaluate biological information critically and deduce logical conclusion; (c) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make deductions; (d) develop abilities and skills in handling materials and apparatus correctly and safely, and; (e) cultivate proper attitudes and values on social, technological, and environmental issues in biology. 1
  • 6. FIRST TERM: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES AND METABOLISM Topic 1 Teaching Period Biological Molecules 24 1.1 2 Learning Outcome Water Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the chemical properties (solvent, bond angles and hydrogen bond) of water and relate its physiological roles in the organisms; (b) describe the physical properties (polarity, cohesiveness, density, surface tension, specific heat capacity, and latent heat of vaporisation) of water and relate its physiological roles in organisms. 1.2 Carbohydrates 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify carbohydrates into monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide with respect to their physical and chemical properties; (b) classify monosaccharide according to the number of carbon atoms and the functional groups (i) triose e.g. glyceraldehydes, (ii) pentose e.g. ribose and deoxyribose, (iii) hexose e.g. glucose and fructose, (c) illustrate the molecular structure of a monosaccharide and differentiate between the reducing and non-reducing ends; (d) describe the formation of glycosidic bond in disaccharides (maltose and sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch, glycogen and cellulose); (e) relate the structure of disaccharides and polysaccharides to their functions in living organisms. 2
  • 7. Topic 1.3 Lipids Teaching Period 3 Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structures, properties and distribution of triglycerides, phospholipids (lecithin) and steroid (cholesterol); (b) state the functions of triglycerides, phospholipids (lecithin) and steroids (cholesterol); (c) differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 1.4 Proteins 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify amino acids into four main classes based on their side chains: polar, non-polar, acidic and basic; (b) describe the structure of an amino acid and the formation of peptide bonds in polypeptides; (c) explain the properties of protein (amphoteric, isoelectric point, buffer and colloid); (d) differentiate the various levels of organisation of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and relate the functions of each structure to the organisation of proteins; (e) explain the denaturation and renaturation of protein; (f) 1.5 Nucleic acids 3 classify proteins according to their structures, compositions (simple and conjugated) and functions. Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structures of nucleotides and the formation of phosphodiester bonds in a polynucleotide; (b) distinguish between DNA and RNA and the three types of RNAs (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA); (c) describe the structure of DNA based on Watson and Crick model. 3
  • 8. Topic 1.6 Analytical techniques Teaching Period 4 Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the basic principles of paper chromatography in pigment separation, electrophoresis for protein and nucleic acid separation. 2 Structure of Cells and Organelles 16 2.1 4 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Candidates should be able to: (a) state the cell theory; (b) compare the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; (c) compare typical animal and plant cells as seen under electron microscopes; (d) describe the basic principles of light and electron microscopy. 2.2 Cellular components 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) identify the cellular components of typical plant and animal cells; (b) describe the structures of organelles and state their functions; (c) explain the basic principles of differential centrifugation used to fractionate cellular components (g and S values). 2.3 Specialised cells 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) outline the structures, functions and distributions of unspecialised cells found in plants (meristematic cells); (b) describe the structures, functions and distributions of specialised plant cells found in epidermal, ground and vascular tissue; (c) describe the structures, functions and distributions of specialised animal cells found in connective, nervous, muscular and epithelial tissues, including the formation of endocrine and exocrine glands. 4
  • 9. Topic 3 Teaching Period Membrane Structure and Transport 8 3.1 3 Learning Outcome Fluid mosaic model Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure of a membrane based on Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model; (b) explain the roles of each component of the membrane. 3.2 Movement of substance across membrane 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the processes of passive and active transports, endocytosis and exocytosis; (b) explain the concepts of water potential, solute potential and pressure potential; (c) calculate the water potential of a plant cell in a solution. 4 Enzymes 20 4.1 3 Catalysis and activation energy Candidates should be able to: (a) explain that enzyme is a globular protein which catalyses a metabolic reaction; (b) explain the mode of action of enzymes at active site involving enzyme-substrate complex and lowering of the activation energy and enzyme specificity. 4.2 Mechanism of action and kinetics 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) illustrate enzyme specificity using induced fit (Koshland) and lock and key (Fischer) models; (b) explain the time course of an enzymecatalysed reaction by measuring the rate of formation of product(s) or rate of disappearance of substrate(s) as the rate of reaction; (c) deduce the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) from the Michaelis-Menten and LineweaverBurk plots; (d) explain the significance of Km and Vmax; (e) explain the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. 5
  • 10. Topic 4.3 Cofactors Teaching Period 3 Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the roles of cofactors (ion activators, coenzymes and prosthetic groups) in an enzymatic reaction; (b) explain the importance of vitamins and minerals as precursors of coenzymes/cofactors. 4.4 Inhibitors 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the effects of competitive and noncompetitive inhibitions on the rate of enzyme activity of reversible inhibition; (b) relate the Lineweaver-Burk plot to the effect of inhibition on Km and Vmax values. 4.5 Classification of enzymes 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe enzyme classification according to International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) e.g. oxidoreductase, transferase, hydrolase, lyase, isomerase and ligase. 4.6 Enzyme technology 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the importance and the main techniques of enzyme immobilisation namely adsorption, entrapment and covalent coupling; (b) explain the application of enzyme immobilisation in the development of biosensors. 5 Cellular Respiration 12 5.1 1 The need for energy in living Candidates should be able to: organism (a) outline the importance of energy and respiration in living organisms; (b) describe the structure of the energy carriers such as ATP, NADH and FADH2. 5.2 Aerobic respiration 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the various stages of aerobic respiration and its location in the cells; (b) describe glycolysis, and calculate the net energy produced in glycolysis; 6
  • 11. Topic Teaching Period Learning Outcome (c) describe the various steps involved in the Krebs cycle (including the link reaction); (d) explain the formation of NADH, FADH2, GTP and ATP during the Krebs cycle; (e) describe oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis in the electron transport system; (f) explain the role of NADH, FADH2 and ATP synthase in the electron transport chain; (g) calculate and explain the net energy produced in aerobic respiration per molecule of glucose in liver and muscle cells; (h) describe the effects of cyanide and carbon monoxide on respiration; (i) 5.3 Anaerobic respiration 3 explain how lipid and protein act as alternative energy sources. Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the anaerobic respiration in yeast and muscle cells; (b) describe the applications of anaerobic respiration in food industries (bread, tapai and yogurt). 6 Photosynthesis 16 6.1 3 Autotroph Candidates should be able to: (a) classify autotroph into photoautotroph and chemoautotroph; (b) describe photosynthetic pigments; (c) explain the absorption spectrum and action spectrum of photosynthetic pigments. 6.2 Light-dependent reactions 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain photoactivation of chlorophyll a resulting in photolysis of water; (b) explain the cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation including electron transport system resulting in the production of ATP and NADPH. 7
  • 12. Topic 6.3 Light-independent reactions Teaching Period 8 Learning Outcome Candidates should be able to: (a) describe Calvin cycle; (b) explain photorespiration; (c) describe the anatomical structure of C4 leaf (Krantz anatomy) in comparison to C3 leaf; (d) explain carbon dioxide fixation in C4 plants and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants; (e) differentiate the metabolism of C3, C4 and CAM plants. 6.4 Limiting factors 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain limiting factors of photosynthesis (light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature); (b) relate the roles of C3, C4 and CAM plants on the increasing carbon dioxide emission and global warming. 8
  • 13. SECONDTERM: PHYSIOLOGY Topic 7 Teaching Period Gas Exchange 12 7.1 7 Learning Outcome Gaseous exchange in humans Candidates should be able to: (a) outline the structure of human respiratory system, including the microscopic structure of the wall of an alveolus; (b) describe the structure of haemoglobin; (c) explain the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood; (d) explain the oxygen dissociation curves of haemoglobin, myoglobin and foetal haemoglobin; (e) explain the Bohr effect and relate it to the oxygen dissociation curve. 7.2 Breathing cycle 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the control of breathing mechanism, including the role of chemoreceptor; (b) define tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. 7.3 Gaseous exchange in plants 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure and functions of stomata; (b) describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata based on potassium ion accumulation hypothesis. 8 Transport in Animals and Plants 16 8.1 8 Transport system in mammals Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the structure of a mammalian heart; (b) define systole and diastole, and explain the sequence of events in a cardiac cycle including changes in pressure and volume in aorta, left atrium and left ventricle; (c) describe the initiation and regulation of heart beat; 9
  • 14. Topic Teaching Period Learning Outcome (d) explain hypertension, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis and myocardial infarction, and state their causes and preventions; (e) describe the lymphatic system in relation to the blood circulatory system; (f) 8.2 Transport system in vascular plants 8 determine the direction of fluid movement at the arterial and venous ends of the capillaries by calculating the differences between osmotic pressure/solute potential and hydrostatic pressure. Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the uptake of water and mineral ions from the soil by the root hairs involving water potential; (b) describe the apoplast, symplast and vacuolar pathway of water movement through the root tissues; (c) describe the root pressure, cohesion-tension theory and transpiration pull in relation to water movement from the roots to leaves; (d) explain translocation using the mass flow, electro-osmosis, cytoplasmic streaming and peristaltic waves hypotheses; (e) explain the concept of source and sink, and phloem loading and unloading in translocation according to pressure flow hypothesis. 9 Control and Regulation 22 9.1 16 Nervous system Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the organisation of the nervous system in humans; (b) explain the formation of resting and action potentials; (c) describe the characteristics of nerve impulse; (d) describe the structure of synapse, and explain the role of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and norepinephrine); (e) explain and compare the mechanisms of impulse transmission along the axon and across the synapse; 10
  • 15. Topic Teaching Period Learning Outcome (f) describe the structure of neuromuscular junction and sarcomere; (g) explain the role of sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium ions, myofibril and T tubules in muscle contraction; (h) explain the mechanism of muscle contraction according to the sliding filament hypothesis; (i) (j) 9.2 Hormones 6 compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; explain the mechanisms of drug action on nervous system and neuromuscular junction (cocaine and curare). Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the mechanisms of action of steroid hormone and non-steroid hormones; (b) explain the roles of plant hormones in growth and development; (c) explain the mechanism of phytochrome action and their roles in photoperiodism and flowering; (d) outline the application of plant growth regulators (synthetic auxin, synthetic gibberellins, and synthetic ethylene) in agriculture. 10 Reproduction, Development and Growth 10.1 Sexual reproduction in humans 13 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) outline spermatogenesis and oogenesis; (b) describe the passage and development of sperms from the testis to the oviduct for fertilisation; (c) describe the process of fertilisation and implantation; (d) describe the roles of hormones in menstrual cycle and pregnancy; (e) describe briefly the stages in embryonic development; 11
  • 16. Topic Teaching Period Learning Outcome (f) explain the roles of placenta, chorion, amniotic fluid and allantois in foetal development; (g) explain the process of parturition. 10.2 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) outline double fertilisation; (b) describe the embryonic development in seed and formation of fruit. 10.3 Seed germination 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the mobilisation of nutrients after imbibition in seed germination; (b) state the external factors affecting germination. 10.4 Growth curves and patterns of growth 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the types of growth curves (absolute growth curve, absolute growth rate curve and relative growth rate curve); (b) explain with examples the patterns of growth (limited growth in humans, unlimited growth in perennial plant, allometric growth in humans, isometric growth in fish and intermittent growth in insect); (c) explain the processes of ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects, and relate the role of hormones (neurosecretory hormone, juvenile hormone and ecdysone) in these processes. 11 Homeostasis 11.1 Importance of homeostasis 10 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the importance of homeostasis; (b) describe the homeostatic control system in mammals; (c) explain the physiologi
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