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AP Biology Summer Assignment Topic 1: Study of Life 1. One unifying theme is the theory of evolution by natural selection. This theory states that organisms change over. A second unifying theme is that all living organisms are made up of cells. In other words, cells are the smallest unit of a living creature. 2. There are ten different levels of biological organization. They are atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organism, species, population, community, and ecosystem. 3. 1. Or
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  Esteban ErediaAP BiologySummer AssignmentTopic 1: Study of Life1.   One unifying theme is the theory of evolution by natural selection. This theory states thatorganisms change over. A second unifying theme is that all living organisms are made upof cells. In other words, cells are the smallest unit of a living creature.2.   There are ten different levels of biological organization. They are atom, molecule, cell,tissue, organ, organism, species, population, community, and ecosystem.3.   1. Order. Organisms are highly ordered, and other characteristics of life emerge from thiscomplex organization.2. Reproduction. Organisms reproduce. Life comes only from life.3. Growth and Development. Heritable programs stored in DNA direct the species-specific pattern of growth and development.4. Energy Utilization. Organisms take in and transform energy to do work, including themaintenance of their ordered state.5. Response to Environment. Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment.6. Homeostasis. Organisms regulate their internal environment to maintain a steady-state,even in the face of a fluctuating external environment.7. Evolutionary Adaptation. Life evolves in response to interactions between organismsand their environment.4.   Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus that is bound by a double membrane. Prokaryoticcells have no nucleus. Eukaryotic DNA is linear while prokaryotic DNA is circular.Eukaryotic DNA is complex with proteins and is organized into chromosomes.Prokaryotic DNA is much simpler and has no proteins associated with it.5.   In a system with positive feedback, the system will respond to a change by trying toincrease the change. In a system with negative feedback, the system will respond to thechange by working to cancel it out.6.   Hypothetico-deductive reasoning basically states that when you are faced with a problem,you start with a general theory of all possible factors that might affect an outcome anddeduce from it specific hypothesis about what might happen.Growth  –  the development of an organism.Development  –  the series of changes which animal and vegetable organisms undergo in theirpassage from the embryonic state to maturity.Metabolism  –    the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.Homeostasis  –  the steady-state physiological condition of the body.  Stimuli  –  that which influences or causes a temporary increase of physiological activity orresponse in the whole organism or in any of its parts.Adaptations  –  inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproductionin specific environments.Prokaryotic  –  of, or pertaining to, or characteristic of a prokaryote, which is basically anorganism lacking a true nucleus.Eukaryotic  –  of, or pertaining to, or characteristic of a eukaryote, which is basically an organismpossessing a membrane-bound nucleus.Evolution  –  the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were differentfrom the present-day ones.Community  –  an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together forpotential interaction.Ecosystem  –  all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which theyinteract.Population  –  a localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producingfertile offspring.Topic 2: Basic Chemistry1.   The four elements essential to life are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.2.   An atom consists of a nucleus and electrons. The nucleus consists of protons andneutrons crammed together. The electrons revolve around the nucleus in orbits.3.   The most important consideration is valence electrons. Since all atoms want a full outershell like the noble gases, they will react in order to lose, gain or share electrons.4.   The octet rule states that atoms tend to strive to have 8 electrons on their outer shell.Depending on the amount of electrons in the outer shell, the atom will form single,double, or even triple bonds in order to reach 8 valence electrons.5.   A covalent bond is a bond that occurs when valence electrons are shared between atoms.Some examples would be chlorine, hydrogen, and hydrogen chloride. A polar covalentbond is a bond between two non-metals with different electronegativity. The higher thedifference in electronegativity, the more polar the bond is. Some examples would bewater and carbon trioxide. An ionic bond is a bond that occurs when electrons are  transferred between atoms. Some examples would be sodium chloride, magnesiumfluoride, and sodium sulphide.6.   A hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole force that exists between anelectronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine. Thistype of force always involves a hydrogen atom and is very weak. A covalent bond isabout 20 times stronger than an intermolecular hydrogen bond. The hydrogen bond isweaker than covalent, ionic and metallic bonds.7.   The more concentrated the solution of reactants is, the more the reaction wants to pushright making more products. The more concentrated the solution of products is, the morethe reaction will push left producing more reactants.8.   Oxidation and reduction must occur simultaneously because for oxidation to take placethe electrons lost by the substance that is oxidized must be accepted by atoms or ions of another substance.Matter  –  anything that takes up space and has mass.Mass  –  the quantity of matter in an object.Element  –  any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance.Atom  –  the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.Compound  –  a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio.Proton  –  a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge.Neutron  –  an electrically neutral particle.Electron  –  a subatomic particle with a single negative charge.Atomic number  –  the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.Mass number  –    the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus.  Isotope  –  an atomic form of a chemical element.Energy  –  the capacity to do work.Electron shell  –  an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of anatom.Orbital  –  a specific wave function for an electron in an atom.Valence electron  –  the electrons in the outermost electron shell.Chemical bond - an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shellelectrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms.Molecule  –  two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.Reactant  –  a starting material in a chemical reaction.  Product  –  an ending material in a chemical reaction.Covalent bond  –  a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valenceelectrons.Polar  –  pertaining to a compound exhibiting polarity or dipole moment that is a compoundbearing a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other.Ionic bond  –  a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.Cation  –  an ion with a positive charge.Anion  –  an ion with a negative charge.Ion  –  an atom that has gained or lost electrons.Hydrogen bond - a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogenatom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polarcovalent bond in another molecule.Reduction  –  the addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.Oxidation  –  the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.Topic 3: Water1.   Water is life, and life is water. Living cells are made almost entirely of water. No livingthings can exist without water as far as we know. Without water there is no fitness of anyenvironment to support life.2.   Water molecules are simply two hydrogen atoms that are joined to the oxygen atom bysingle covalent bonds. The water molecule is shaped something like a wide V.3.   Water contains two O--H bonds. This bond is very polar because oxygen is veryelectronegative and will pull electrons away from hydrogen. This means that thehydrogen end will be slightly positive and the oxygen end will be slightly negative.
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