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Planning is all Pervasive. a. It is required at all levels of management and in all departments of enterprise. b. Of course, the scope of planning may differ from one level to another. c. The top level may be more concerned about planning the organization as a whole whereas the middle level may be more specific in departmental plans and the lower level plans implementation of the same. The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an org
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  Planning is all Pervasive. a. It is required at alllevels of managementand in all departments of enterprise.b.Of course, the scope of planning may differ from one level to another.c.The top level may be more concerned about planning the organization as a whole whereas themiddle level may be more specific in departmental plans and the lower level plansimplementation of the same. The term “ Levels of Management ’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of managementdetermines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of management can beclassified in three broad categories: - 1.Top level / Administrative level2.Middle level / Executory3.Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers Managers at all these levels perform different functions. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below: L EVELS O F M ANAGEMENT 1.Top Level of Management It consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director. The top management isthe ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotesmore time on planning and coordinating functions.The role of the top management can be summarized as follows -a.Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.b.It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures,schedules etc.c.It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise.d.It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers.e.It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments.f.It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.g.It provides guidance and direction.h.The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performanceof the enterprise. 2.Middle Level of Management The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They areresponsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. They devote moretime to organizational and directional functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of   middle level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and junior middle levelmanagement. Their role can be emphasized as -a.They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies anddirectives of the top management.b.They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.c.They participate in employment & training of lower level management.d.They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level.e.They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department.f.It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management.g.They evaluate performance of junior managers.h.They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance. 3.Lower Level of Management Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc. According to R.C. Davis ,“Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely withpersonal oversight and direction of operative employees”. In other words, they are concernedwith direction and controlling function of management. Their activities include -a.Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.b.They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.c.They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production.d.They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in theorganization.e.They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory appeals etcto the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers.f.They help to solve the grievances of the workers.g.They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.h.They are responsible for providing training to the workers.i.They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done. j.They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers.k.They ensure discipline in the enterprise.l.They motivate workers.m.They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact withthe workers.  The Pros and Cons of Outsourcing to India With outsourcing to India gaining popularity in countries like the US and the UK, it isimportant to assess the pros and cons of it. Starting with the back office operations inthe early 1980s, theoutsourcing process to India evolved in the new millennium. This has expanded with the growth of software development and web designing projectsoutsourced to India. Finally, the rise of the BPO (business process outsourcing) industrystrengthened the concept and cemented the trust of global companies in theIndianoutsourcingcommunity.However, there has been a constant debate as to whether outsourcing jobs to India hasas many cons as it does pros. The following are some of the postive as well as negativeaspects of outsourcing to India. Available infrastructure If one goes back to the early 1990s, the Indian infrastructure available to theforeigncompanies outsourcingto India suffered from a number of flaws. Lack of telecommunications, for example, was one major drawback. Its high costs andunreliability made doing business in India much more difficult.The things have changed drastically in the past 10-15 years. Telecommunications, for example, have been upgraded are now provides the infrastructure that allowsoutsourcing to grow. An exceptional change has been brought by the growth of ITinfrastructure, which is currently capable of catering to most demands of  outsourcers. However, as a lot more improvements are still needed, this con has a way to go before itbecomes a pro. Skills and Talent This aspect should be counted among the pros of outsourcing to India. Any companyconsidering outsourcing a job related to most particular skills can find thousands of people willing to take it and complete it in a very efficient manner. Implementation of themodern technologies and conceptualization of innovative ideas can be expected fromthe talented workforce in the country. English speaking capability This aspect can be considered as a pro as well as a con. There are a greater number of English speaking people in India than in any other Asian country. However, the problemlies in the issue of accent, which bears a regional influence. The solution, which many  Indians who want to work for foreign countries resort to, is opting for accent training,which can be easily availed from one of the many language institutions located indifferent cities across the country. Those who are talented are definitely willing toundergo such training programs to get absorbed in the workforce of these outsourcingcompanies. Difference in culture There is a huge difference in the culture of India and the countries like the US and theUK. However, these differences do not have to have a deep impact on the wayoutsourcing businesses are conducted. One can see a number of cities like Bangalore,Chennai, Noida and Hyderabad following similar working culture as followed in thedeveloped countries. Moreover, the outsourcing companies in India reserve a sufficientdeal of money to invest in cultural training (similar to English training). Time zone difference sWhile it can make communication difficult on occasion, time differences can be a pro asfar as the process of outsourcing to India is concerned. A company in the US, for example, provides work to an Indian outsourcing company when it is daytime in the US.Indians start working during night hours of the US. This forms a 24×7 working schedulethat helps in the on-time delivery of projects. Cost factors Cost is undoubtedly the most important of the factors that draws global companies to thepractice of outsourcing to India. However, the countries in rivalry, including China andTaiwan, are making attempts to cut their costs further. Even then, the Indian rates areoften considered as a benchmark to compare the rates offered by other countries. Thecost factor is and will remain a pro for the outsourcing concept.Outsourcing to India is often regarded as a double-edge sword and there are personalopinions on whether outsourcing pros weigh the cons or vice versa. In actuality, theanswer may vary with the industry. Every company needs to look at the big picture anddecide what is best for them.
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