84 | PART B. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN NEW WORKING ENVIRONMENT

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84 | PART B. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN NEW WORKING ENVIRONMENT
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    184 | PART B . SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 5. No. 5. September, 2013 P. Korzynski. Employee motivation in new working environment. International Journal of Academic Research Part B; 2013; 5(5), 184-188. DOI:  10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/B.28 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN NEW WORKING ENVIRONMENT Pawel Korzynski  Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego, Harvard University  (POLAND) p.korzynski@fas.harvard.edu  DOI:  10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/B.28  ABSTRACT Social context has always played an important role in employee motivation. Currently, organizations are experiencing technological change in working environment where online networking tools enable to share knowledge, develop ideas, solve problems, and manage a variety of projects. More often than not, individuals use internal and external online networking platforms at work. However, little is known if the new generation of leaders should try to embrace these new methods of communication and in this way engage employees. This paper analyzes how technological, generational and organizational changes impact employee motivation and which component of motivation is crucial in the new workplace. Key words:  communication, employee motivation, leadership, online networking, technology, workplace 1. INTRODUCTION In the 20 th  century many experts indicated that effective managers communicate with their subordinates while walking in hallways [1-3]. However, in the 21 st  century organizations are different. Hallways have been replaced by online networking platforms, mobile systems, and other sophisticated communication tools. It can be concluded that leaders who want to be effective in motivating and communicating should adjust to the new working environment. That is why in this paper, first, I study specific changes that shape the current working environment. Second, I analyze how these Changes relate to the issue of employee motivation. Finally, I refer to different motivation theories in reference to the social context. 2. CHANGES IN NEW WORKING ENVIRONMENT New communication technologies, globalization and the modern generation of connected, mobile employees are creating an entirely new way of working, collaborating and motivating. Many scholars refer to different changes that shape current and future workplace. These changes fall into three main categories: generational, organizational and technological. Technological change Many scholars indicate that communication technology is changing today’s organization [4]. Online social networking platforms are currently a very important communication tool not only for individuals, but also for organizations. Professional networking platforms are growing slowly, but they bring a huge potential in business. Two types of professional networking platforms can be distinguished. First, external ones that are available to everyone, such as LinkedIn, Viadeo and Xing. They enable to search for clients, business partners, candidates as well as job offers. Second, internal networking platforms are limited to users working in a particular organization, such as Yammer or Chatter. On internal networking platforms employees are able to share knowledge, comment ideas, contribute to different projects and perform tasks [5]. In the face of this technological change, the challenge for organizations lies in adapting in order to enable people to be productive with the new technology. It does not mean that leaders need to spend all their time on a social networking platform and solve all problems through an online setting. There are situations such as when communicating new goals, strategies or bad news when face-to-face conversation is the most appropriate way of communication and cannot be replaced [6, 7]. Therefore, Proposition 1. A combination of online and offline communication ways is positively associated with social aspect of employee motivation. Generational change Generation Y, also known as the Millenials, (i.e.   the generation of children born between 1976 and 1994) have already entered the labour market [8]. On the one hand, Millenials are described as hard-working, optimistic,    Baku, Azerbaijan| 185   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 5. No. 5. September, 2013 and civic-minded, but on the other hand, they are characterized as self-absorbed and unable to handle criticism in the workplace [9]. Moreover they are comfortable with technology and online networking as an integrated part of their lives from a young age [10]. Millenials’ behaviours are spreading across generations as the latest communication technology become more and more popular. Finally, they expect other people to communicate with them in a dynamic, two-way manner [11]. It can be concluded that those leaders, who try to adjust to expectations of new generation, can me more effective in motivating them. Thus, Proposition 2: The use of new communication technology by leaders working in organizations with high percentage of Millenials is positively associated with employee motivation Organizational change Currently, traditional hierarchical bureaucratic structures are being replaced with more innovative ones which enable employee empowerment [12]. Today’s workplace is a combination of online and offline environment, characterized by networking and collaboration among employees, who are able to perform activities anytime and anywhere. Work in different time zones and locations causes problems with communication and motivation. Effective leaders, who previously were able meet their employees, collect data during small talks and use open-door policy, now need to organize their work in a different way. Thanks to the new methods of communication, they are able to communicate, inspire and motivate a higher number of employees than ever before. Thus: Proposition 3: The use of new communication technology by current leaders working in different time zones and locations is positively associated with employee motivation. 3. THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CONTEXT IN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION The first approaches to understanding human motivation appeared in the fourth century B.C., when Greek philosophers referred to a concept of hedonism as a main driving force for behavior. The principle of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain was developed in the works of philosophers like Locke, Bentham and Mill in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. At the end of the nineteenth century, the issue of motivation started to be analyzed in psychology. James [13] and McDougall [14] argued that motivation by instincts was important for human behavior. One of those instincts was sociability. Later other psychologists such as Thorndike [15] and Hull [16] replaced instinct theories with the concept of learning from the past in motivated behavior. At the same time organizational researchers like Taylor [17] were focused on scientific management with the use of measurement and payment as drives for performance and motivation. Contrary to this view, social scientists like Mayo [18], Barnard [19] and Roethlisberger and Dickson [20], presented social needs as a motivational factor. Mayo argued that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel crucial within their social system. As a result, employees were given the freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups. In the 1950s, content theories, emphasizing individuals’ needs, started to appear. For example, Maslow [21] developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchical classes.  According to his theory, individuals are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower-level needs such as those related to physiological and safety factors must be satisfied before higher-level needs (belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization) are to be addressed. Needs associated with belonging were referred to as the third level of Maslow’s pyramid. These needs are met through satisfactory relationships - connections with different people with whom individuals interact, thus implying acceptance by others.  Alderfer [22] condensed Maslow’s five levels of needs into three levels based on the core needs of existence, relatedness and growth (ERG theory) with the suggestion that lower-level needs do not have to be satisfied before a higher-level need can be met. Relatedness addresses social concerns, such as developing networks and identifying with social groups. McClelland [23] focused on the need for achievement, power and affiliation. A high need for affiliation indicates that the individual is strongly motivated by receiving approval from others, meeting external expectations, and avoiding conflict and confrontation. However, it has been found that individuals with a low need for affiliation are more suitable for decision-making positions as their choices and actions in allocating resources are not biased by a personal desire to avoid conflict or to earn approval. McClelland suggested that individuals usually possess several often competing needs that serve to motivate behavior when activated. Other content-based theories take the content of the work that a person does, into consideration. For example, Herzberg´s [24] theory and that of Hackman and Oldham [25] suggest that particular features of a job can influence employee motivation or demotivation. According to Herzberg’s concept human relations are related to hygiene factors that could only reduce employee dissatisfaction. However among motivational factors are recognition and advancement, which also have some social aspect. Beginning in the mid 1960s, a new approach to the study of work motivation emerged, which viewed work motivation from a dynamic perspective. The process theory tried to explain how people initiate, direct and maintain their motivation. One such concept is Adam´s equity theory, which argued that individuals expect a balance between their contribution and the outcome they obtain. They compare their situation with other similar individuals    186 | PART B . SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 5. No. 5. September, 2013 and if there is inequity, they adjust their behavior so as to reduce that inequity. Equity theory is derived from social exchange theory [26], because an employee compares his input/outcome ratio to the perceived ratios of others. Further work in this field also takes into account the justice of the decision process and suggests that individuals react against their organization if they perceive an injustice that is both distributive and procedural [27].  Another process concept is Vroom’s expectancy theory which assumed that through a cognitive process, people assign probabilities to three factors: expectancy (an individual´s confidence that their efforts will produce a certain level of performance), instrumentality (an individual´s confidence that their performance will produce particular outcomes) and valence (the value the individual assigns to those specific outcomes) [28]. Porter and Lawler [29] developed Vroom’s expectancy model. In this model effort, performance and satisfaction are mediated by individual abilities, traits, role perceptions and rewards. Social context in expectancy theory does not play an important role. Likewise, goal-setting theory, appeared in the late 1960s, when researchers discovered that specifying targets for behavior as well as goal specificity, goal difficulty, and goal commitment facilitate task performance, this theory does not refer to social issues [30-32]. In contrast to expectancy and goal-setting theories, Bandura's cognitive theory referred to social context [33]. The concept stated that individuals’ behavior is influenced by the social environment as well as self-efficacy, defined as an individual's belief in his or her ability to achieve results in a given scenario. Many concepts emerging from the 1960s and 1970s have been subsequently developed in recent years. More recently, in 2008, Harvard scholars, Nohria, Groysberg and Lee [34] described a new model of employee motivation. They defined overall motivation as a set of four components: engagement (reflected by energy, effort and initiative that employees bring to their job), satisfaction (measured by the extent to which employees feel that their employer meets their expectations), commitment (represented by involvement in corporate citizenship), and intention to quit or stay within the company. Furthermore the researchers outlined the four fundamental drives that underlie motivation as follows: the drive to acquire (the acquisition of scarce material things, including financial compensation, to feel better), the drive to bond (developing different forms of connections), the drive to comprehend (satisfy an individual’s curiosity), and the drive to defend (defending property, values and accomplishments). Finally, they argue that, in order to increase motivation, there is a need to satisfy all of these four drives. The drive to bond is a very important part of the model. Best practice companies address the influence of the drive to bond by developing a corporate culture giving attention to mutual reliance, collaboration and sharing. These Harvard researchers also underlined the role of direct management in reference to all drives, they can foster a highly motivating local environment through praise, recognition and encouragement of teamwork. Many scholars underline that belongingness to an organizational team is a crucial issue for employee motivation or performance in a virtual environment, where access to organizational rituals, artifacts and workspaces related to identification with a traditional work setting is extremely limited [35-38].  As there are more and more employees working online, effective leaders should take care about the social aspect of their work. Some studies indicate that activities undertaken by leaders online bring some advantages [39]. Thus, Proposition 4. Social aspect of employee motivation is positively associated with leadership activities undertaken in a virtual environment. 4. DISCUSSION The purpose of this paper was to analyze changes in the new working environment and consider if leaders should adjust their motivation techniques. There are a few conclusions. First, current organizations function in both online and offline setting. Even if there are still leaders who can prove their efficiency using only traditional communication tools, these leaders lose some new opportunities such us reaching a wide audience very quickly or collecting data from first line employees. Second, current leaders cannot forget that the new generation of employees, also known as the Generation Y or the Millenials consist of individuals who are frequent social media users and expect peers and executives alike to communicate with them in a dynamic, two-way manner. Leaders working in organizations with a higher percentage of Millenials should pay special attention to modern communication tools otherwise, they can experience troubles in communicating and motivating these employees. Third, organizational changes, often caused by globalization processes, force companies to use innovative and flexible communication technologies. They are important especially for those companies which operate in different locations and time zones. In such cases online networking platforms can be an appropriate solution to discuss current work, exchange ideas and collaborate. Finally, as the social aspect of motivation is very important in motivation theories as well as in online environment, leaders need to undertake many activities online to create a sort of bond with their employees and in this way assert a positive influence on their motivation.    Baku, Azerbaijan| 187   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of ACADEMIC RESEARCH Vol. 5. No. 5. September, 2013 REFERENCES 1. 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