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a. Yes, available as a .pdf format freely downloadable at : http://www.wont.uji.es/wont/downloads/capitulos_libro/internacionales/INPRESSCIFRE 02CI.pdf b. - Collective Bargaining - negotiation between an employer and trade union - Unionism - the system or principles and theory of labor unions - Return On Investment - return on invested capital, the amount, expressed as a percentage, that is earned on a company's total capital. - Selective Recruitment - Selective, or targeted, recruitment involve
  a.   Yes, available as a .pdf format freely downloadable at :http://www.wont.uji.es/wont/downloads/capitulos_libro/internacionales/INPRESSCIFRE   02CI.pdf   b.   - Collective Bargaining -   negotiation between an employer and trade union- Unionism - the system or principles and theory of labor unions- Return On Investment - return on invested capital, the amount, expressed as apercentage, that is earned on a company's total capital.- Selective Recruitment - Selective, or targeted, recruitment involves developingrecruitment strategies that are more proactive in their approach to attract well-qualifiedcandidates with specific skill sets.- Alternative Dispute Resolution    –  ADR, also known as External Dispute Resolution insome countries, such as Australia) includes dispute resolution processes and techniquesthat act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation.- Third Party Arbitration - The process by which the parties to a dispute submit theirdifferences to the judgment of an impartial person or group appointed by mutual consentor statutory provision.- Wrongful Termination - Wrongful dismissal, also called wrongful termination orwrongful discharge, is an idiom and legal phrase, describing a situation in which anemployee's contract of employment has been terminated by the employer incircumstances where the termination breaches one or more terms of the contractstipulated.- Standard Operation Policies - Standard operating policies are formal statementscommunicating general rules and principles by which a company does business.- Fringe Benefits - An extra benefit supplementing an employee's salary.- Performance Appraisal - A performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performancereview, or (career) development discussion is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time).- Job Placement - An employment agency is an organization which matches employersto employees. In all developed countries there is a publicly funded employment agencyand multiple private businesses which also act as employment agencies.- Work-life Balance - Work   –  life balance is having enough time for work and enough tohave a life thus the work life balance. Related, though broader, terms include lifestylebalance and life balance .- Benefit Plans - A specific benefit within a plan type- Economic Rent - The extra amount earned by a resource (e.g., land, capital, or labor)by virtue of its present use- Deregulation - The process of removing constraints, especially government imposedeconomic regulation  - Commercialization - Sequence of actions necessary to achieve market entry andgeneral market competitiveness of new innovative technologies, processes, and products- Oligopoly - A state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a smallnumber of producers or sellers- Intellectual Capital - Representation of the financial value that human innovations,inventions, and intelligence bring to a business enterprise.- Legislation - Law enacted by a legislative body- Wrongful Termination - Wrongful dismissal, also called wrongful termination orwrongful discharge, is an idiom and legal phrase, describing a situation in which anemployee's contract of employment has been terminated by the employer incircumstances where the termination breaches one or more terms of the contract.   c.   Checked/Verifiedd.   - Striking a Balance in Labor Relations- Workplace Dispute Resolution- Economic Approach to HRM- Post-resolution Employee Behavior- Alternative Pay Systems- Managing Marginal Employees- Public Policy, Reorganisations, Futures of Employment- Building Profits By Putting People First- Trade Union Economics- Low Involvement Work Practicese.   Summary H uman resource management consists of the attraction,selection, retention, utilization, motivation,rewarding, and disciplining of employees in organizations  —   in short, the management of people at work.During the last century or so, profound shifts have occurredin the industrial mix of the economy, the nature and extent of competition, and the types of work that employees perform.In particular, economic activity has shifted from agricultureto manufacturing and from manufacturing to services, withmore and more employees performing relatively higherlevel analytical, professional, and technical work, and feweremployees performing relatively low-level, low-skill, andmanual work. In the wake of these shifts, it has becomecommon for businesses to claim that they (increasingly)compete based on intellectual or human capital rather than  physical capital or ―hard‖ assets (Pfeffer 1994).   Human Resource Management encompassesthe management of people at work. In recentyears technological and economic factorshave influenced it largely.   The phrase ―human resource management,‖ which   The influence is encapsulated from the  supplanted the earlier ―personnel management,‖ conveys  a sense of these shifts in that employees  —  people  —  areviewed as resources whose active management can positivelycontribute to organizational success. In this sense,human resources are akin to customers, financial resources,operating systems, and technology, each of which constitutesa main input into organizationswhich then mix andtransform these inputs for the purpose of producing majoroutputs  —  generically, goods and services and combinationsthereof. The quantity and quality of such goods and services are constrained by (operate within the context of) an organization’s  strategic objectives. In companies, these objectivestypically include rate of return on invested capital, revenuegrowth, market share and, if publicly traded, share price. Aswith other inputs or assets, therefore, human resources mustbe managed strategically for the longer term and not justoperationally for the short term or on a day-to-day basis.   reprisal of Human Resource Managementfrom Personnel Management. FurthermoreHR is as valuable to businesses ascustomers, capital, technology and operatingsystems in order to produce goods andservices. This view of human resource management clearly indicatesthat those who lead and manage business (and nonbusiness)enterprises as well as component units and departmentsmust be skilled in the management of people. At thesame time and as organizations grow larger, they usuallyestablish a formal human resources function (that is, adepartment) staffed by executives and professionals whospecialize and assist the organization in managing its employees. An ―HR department‖ typically develops, specifies,  and monitors operating policies and practices regardinghiring, job placement, pay and fringe benefits, performanceappraisal, promotion, training and development, work-lifebalance, and discipline and due process. However, becauseof the large amount of human resource/employment legislation,an HR department typically also specifies and monitorsoperating policies and practices regarding payroll deductions,workplace safety, equal employment opportunity,employee leave plans, employee savings and benefit plans,and employee health care and wellness plans (Jackson &Schuler 2003).   Great skill and aptitude is required of the HRmanagers themselves. They havecomprehensive responsibilities acrossrecruitment, legislation, training areas andetc.   Contemporary human resource management occurs ina world that is much different from that which existedonly a relatively short time ago. A leading developmentin this regard is the change in employment contracting,specifically, from permanent or continuous employment toemployability. During the 40-year period dating from theend of World War II to about the mid-1980s, the majority of employeesworked continuously for the companies that employedthem, were covered by pension plans, and receiveda stream of pension benefits once they retired from employmentwith those companies. Under this arrangement,employees were paid less than the value of their productivityearly on and more than the value of their productivitylater on, with employers gaining an economic rent duringthe former periodand employees gaining an economic rentduring the latter period. At virtually any point during this Contemporary HR Management practicesevolved proactively in the mid-1980s withthe importance shifting from traditionalcontinuous employment plans withguaranteed economic rents in an implicitagreement.  period of continuous or permanent employment, therefore,one party had an obligation to the other party. These obligationswere generally not put in writing, however, which iswhy this arrangement is referred to as implicit employmentcontracting (Lewin & Mitchell 1995, pp. 194  –  196). Thesecontracts, it should be noted, applied largely to male employeeswho in a more traditional era were regarded as thebreadwinners  —   the sole breadwinners  —  for their families.   With the onset in about 1980 and the subsequent rapidspread of global economic competition, deregulation, andtechnological change, the employment landscape shiftedmarkedly. Whereas earlier on in an era of mutual andreciprocalobligations employers responded to economicrecessions by laying off employees and then rehiring themwhen economic conditions improved, during the 1980semployers began systematically to reduce their workforcesin order to achieve long-term, permanent labor cost reductions.So pervasive was this trend that even companieswith the strongest reputations for continuous employmentsuch as IBM, Kodak, 3M, Polaroid, and Xerox followedsuit. Such actions sent a clear message to both current employeesand new workforce entrants that continuous (andsurely permanent) employment with the same companywas increasingly unlikely (Osterman 1988). During the 1990s, especially the ―go - go‖ second half of that decade,  which featured major economic expansion fueled by hightechnologycompanies and the commercialization of theInternet, labor markets were very tight, and therefore competitionfor labor  —  human resources  —  was especially keen.Consequently, employee quit rates rose markedly and frequent job changing (even job hopping) became the orderof the day. This development reinforced the message of the1980s, namely, that continuous or permanent employmentwas the wave of the past rather than the present and, evenmore likely, the future. From an analytical perspective,employability became the order of the day, employees werepaid the value of their productivity at any point in time, andimplicit long-term employment contracting gave way toshorter- term, often explicit, commodity type ―labor‖ contracting,  including most notably through outsourcing. Thesetrends continued, even sharpened, into the first decade of the 21st century (Effron, Gandossy, & Goldsmith 2003).   During the 1980s employers begansystematic streamline of their workforceamidst greater competition externally andglobalised business expansions.   Another key trend of direct relevance to human resourcemanagement that occurred during the past quarter-century  —   indeed, during the past half-century  —  is the decline of private-sector unionization and collective bargaining, notonly in the United States but also in most other nations.Whereas about one-third of the U.S. nonagricultural privatesectorlabor force once belonged to unions and worked underterms and conditions of employment that were explicitlyspelled out in collective bargaining agreements that hadbeen negotiated by company executives and union officials,today only 7.4% of private-sector employees belong tounions and less than 10% are covered by collective bargaining Fundamental forces similarly reduced theprowess of private-sector unionization andcollective bargaining and focused HRM ontoindividually oriented relationships.  
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