3 sharma s

 Documents

 25 views
of 9
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Description
sharma
Share
Transcript
  J Midlife Health. 2015 Jan-Mar; 6(1): 16  –  20. doi: 10.4103/0976-7800.153606 PMCID: PMC4389379 Menopausal symptoms and its effect on quality of life in urban versus rural women: A cross-sectional study   Sudhaa Sharma and  Neha Mahajan  Author information ►   Copyright and License information ►  This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:  Abstract Aim and Objective: To analyze the menopause-related symptoms and its impact on quality of life in post-menopausal women from urban and rural area. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional 1-year study was carried among women of urban ( n  = 490) and rural ( n  = 380) areas, attending the outpatient department in the urban area and a house-to-house survey in rural areas, by interviews with the help of a pretested semi-structured standard questionnaire. For assessment of the menopausal symptoms menopause rating scale (MRS) and for quality of life, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) questionnaire was used. Results: There was a significant difference between the MRS total scores of the urban (14.67 ± 6.64) and rural (16.08 ± 7.65) group. The somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms were high in rural women than in urban women. The results were not significant for urogenital subscale. The mean raw scores of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (4-20) of  physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (0-100) including the physical health,  psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The result was not significant for physical health. Conclusion:  The high proportions and the scores of MRS were observed in both rural and the urban women. The severity of symptoms was found more distressing for rural women. The quality of life in urban society was average and better than in rural women. Keywords: Menopausal symptoms, post-menopausal women, quality of life Go to:  INTRODUCTION Menopause is a natural biological phenomenon in a women's life. Currently, menopause affects the lives of millions of women globally and will be an issue of increasing concern as the  population ages over the next few decades. The overall health and well-being of mid-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the year approaching menopause, leading to decrease in Quality of Life (QOL).[1]  Various studies existing from foreign countries have indicated that menopause is negatively related to QOL by menopausal symptoms based on their severity.[2,3,4,5]  The study of QOL in the post-menopause has become an essential component in clinical  practice. Most studies on QOL of post-menopausal women exist from developed countries. A very little information exists about this in developing countries like India. Thus, present study was undertaken to determine the menopause related symptoms and its impact on QOL in urban and rural post-menopausal women. Go to:  MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional 1-year study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMGS Hospital, Government Medical College, Jammu and in the rural field practice area, Ranbir Singh Pura. Any women who has achieved menopause naturally, irrespective of her marital status and parity, was a potential participant of the study. Women undergoing treatment for cancer, or in remission, women with history of using oral contraceptives pills, hormone replacement therapy, and phytoestrogens were excluded from the current analysis. The participant women of urban area attending the outpatient department, where as rural women were interviewed with a house-to-house survey, with the help of a pretested semi-structured standard questionnaire. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee.  Information regarding socio-demographic profile and reproductive parameters (such as parity, age of menarche, regularity of menses, age of menopause, and years since last menstruation) were recorded. For assessment of the menopausal symptoms Menopause Rating scale (MRS)[6] was used. MRS is an 11-item questionnaire. It contains three independent dimensions: Psychological, somatic, and urogenital subscale. Each of the 11 symptoms in MRS contained in the scale can get 0 (no complaints) or up to 4 scoring points (severe symptoms) depending on the severity of the complaints perceived by the women completing the scale. The composite scores for each of the dimensions (subscales) are based on adding up the scores of each item of the respective dimensions. The composite score (total score) is the sum of the dimension scores, and is  proportional to the severity of subjectively perceived symptoms.[7]  For the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) questionnaire in English Version[8] translated to local language was used for it. The scores were calculated according to the standard methods where, the raw scores were converted to transformation scores. The first transformation converts scores to range of 4-20 and the second transformation converts domain scores to 0-100 scale. Higher scores reflect better QOL. The WHO QOL-BREF contained 26 items, categorized under 4 main domains: Physical, psychological, social, and environmental. A separate 5-point scale ranging from never (4) to always (0 point) was used for the measurement of each item. Total score of each domain was 108; the higher score indicating a good QOL, a lower score indicating a poor QOL and high effect of menopausal symptoms on QOL. Those who obtained scores from 0 to 33.3% were considered poor QOL, from 33.3 to 66.7% were considered average QOL, and more than 66.7% were considered to have good QOL. Statistical analysis The data was analyzed by computer software MS Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21.0 for Windows. The quantitative variables were presented as mean and standard deviation. Menopausal symptoms were grouped and presented as percentages. QOL was assessed by WHO QOL questionnaire and scored in four different domains. Comparisons were also reported according to selected variables. Go to:  RESULTS Four hundred and ninety urban and 380 rural women participated in the current analysis. There was a significant difference between the MRS total scores of the urban (14.67 ± 6.64) and rural (16.08 ± 7.65) group. The somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms were high in rural women than in urban women. But the results were not statistically significant for urogenital subscale [Tables [Tables11  –  3].   Table 1 Comparison of urban and rural menopausal women according to menopause rating scale Table 3 Comparison of menopausal women from urban and rural areas according to World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) raw score Table 2a Comparison of urban and rural women according to mean menopause rating scale scores per subscale and symptoms Table 2b Comparison of urban and rural women according to menopause rating scale scores and  percentages per subscale and symptoms Mean scores of hot flushes and sweating was more in rural (1.66 ± 1.25) as compared to urban (1.45 ± 1.03) women. The mean score of heart discomfort was 1.20 ± 1.04 in urban women which is more as compared to 1.16 ± 1.06 of the rural women. The score of sleeping problems was more, i. e., 1.44 ± 1.29 in the rural women compared to 1.30 ± 1.08 in urban women. Muscle
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks