Behavioral and Cog Perspectives 16-04-12


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behavioural and cognitive theories of mental illness
  BEHAVIOURAL AND COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVES ONMENTAL ILLNESS Presentee: Priya PuriChairperson: Sri. Prasanta Kr. RoyDepartment of clinical PsychologyInstitute of PsychiatryGovt. of West BengalKolkata Date: 16-04-12  BEHAVIOURAL AND COGNITIVEPERSPECTIVES ON MENTAL ILLNESS Etiological models of Mental illness:   Medical model  for understanding abnormality- Greisinger (1817–1868) focused on the role of the brain, rather than spirit possession, in abnormal behaviour  . Kraepelin carried further Greisinger’s ideas that brain malfunction caused psychological disorder.   Psychoanalytic model  - this approach, given by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) led to the discoveryof the unconscious  —the portion of the mind that contains experiences of which a person isunaware.  The behavioural perspective : The behavioural perspective   is organized around a central theme:the role of learning in human behaviour.  Cognitive theories : The cognitive model of Aaron Beck (1921–) and the rational-emotivetherapy approach developed by Albert Ellis (1913–2007) are important contributions to theunderstanding of the etiology of psychological disturbances from the cognitive perspective.   Biopsychosocial approach : Social scientists use the term biopsychosocial to refer to theinteraction in which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors play a role in thedevelopment of the individual. It also includes the diathesis-stress approach according to which people are born with a diathesis (or predisposition) that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder. Etiology past, present and future:   Prehistoric Times : Abnormal Behaviour    as Demonic Possession   Ancient Greece and Rome: The Emergence of the Scientific Model  . Hippocrates’s (460–377B.C.) gave the concept of Body fluids: He believed that there were four important bodilyfluids that influenced physical and mental health: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.An excess of any of these fluids could account   for changes in an individual’s personality and behaviour.  The Middle Ages and Renaissance: The Re-emergence of Spiritual Explanations - The MiddleAges are sometimes referred to as the “Dark Ages.” In terms of the approaches to psychological disorders, this was indeed a dark period. No scientific or medical advances  occurred beyond those of Hippocrates and Galen. In the rare cases in which people with psychological disorders sought medical treatment, the physician could offer little beyond the barbaric methods of purging and bleeding, ineffectual attempts to manipulate diet, or the prescription of useless drugs. During the Middle Ages, there was a resurgence of primitive beliefs regarding spiritual possession. People turned to superstition, astrology, and alchemy toexplain many natural phenomena, including psychological and physical illnesses. Magicalrituals, exorcism, and folk medicines were widely    practiced. Beliefs in demonic possessionwere also used to account for abnormal behaviour, and people who sought help from theclergy were treated as sinners, witches, or embodiments of the devil. The punishment andexecution of people accused of being witches became more widespread toward the end of theMiddle Ages, especially during the Renaissance.   Europe and the United States in the 1700s: The Reform Movement- ã The moral treatment came to the fore-front during this time and was based on the philosophy that the mentally ill deserved to be treated with humanity.Underlying this approach was the philosophy that, with the proper care, people candevelop self-control over their disturbed behaviours. Restraints were used only if absolutely necessary, and even in those cases the patient’s comfort came first. ã Benjamin Rush (1745–1813) became to be known as the founder of American psychiatry for his rekindling of interest in the scientific approach to psychological disorders. He spoke out for changes that were considered radical at thetime, such as placing psychologically disturbed patients in separate wards, giving themoccupational therapy, and prohibiting visits from curiosity seekers who frequented thehospital for entertainment.  The 1800s to the 1900s: Development of Alternative Models for Abnormal Behaviour: In 1844, agroup   of 13 mental hospital administrators formed the Association   of Medical Superintendentsof American Institutions for the   Insane. The name of this organization was eventually changedto the American Psychiatric Association. The founding of    this organization gave rise to the medical model, the view that   abnormal behaviours result from physical problems and   should betreated medically. The goals of the American Psychiatric Association were furthered by the publication in 1845 of a book on the pathology and treatment of psychological disorders byWilliam Greisinger, a German psychiatrist. Greisinger focused on the role of the brain, rather than spirit possession, in abnormal behaviour. Another German psychiatrist, Emil Kraepelin, was  also influential in the development of the American psychiatric movement. Kraepelin carriedfurther Greisinger’s ideas that brain malfunction caused psychological disorder.  The Development of the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder  : The first major steps weretaken by Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), the most frequently cited psychological theorist of thetwentieth century. During five decades of observation, treatment, and writing, Freud developed acomprehensive theory of psychopathology that emphasized the inner dynamics of unconsciousmotives (often referred to as  psychodynamics ) that are at the heart of the psychoanalytic perspective. The methods he used to study and treat patients came to be called psychoanalysis.The roots of psychoanalysis can however be traced back to Mesmer’s concept of animalmagnetism where he used hypnosis in order to treat the mentally ill.  The Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: Experimental Psychology : ã THE EARLY PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORIES: In 1879 Wilhelm Wundt established thefirst experimental psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig. While studying the psychological factors involved in memory and sensation, Wundt and his colleaguesdevised many basic experimental methods and strategies. Wundt directly influenced earlycontributors to the empirical study of abnormal behaviour; they followed hisexperimental methodology and also applied some of his research strategies to studyclinical problems. Thus the first clinic was set up by Lightner Whitmer (1867-1956). ã THE BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE: the advent of experimental methods to study psychological factors led to rise of behaviourism. Behavioural psychologists believed thatthe study of subjective experience—through the techniques of free association and dreamanalysis—did not provide acceptable scientific data, because such observations were notopen to verification by other investigators. In their view, only the study of directlyobservable behaviour—and the stimuli and reinforcing conditions that “control” it— could serve as a basis for formulating scientific principles of human behaviour.  The Advancement in research methods in study of abnormal psychology: Technology hasadvanced, and we are now developing   methods to study behaviours, moods, and cognitions,which have long been considered inaccessible. We can   now use brain-imaging techniques suchas functional   magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the working    brain. We can study blood flow to various parts of the    brain during memory tasks. We can even look at which brain
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