Analysis of Animal Remains from the John Chapman Village Site (11JD12): Further Insight on Apple River Mississippian Faunal Exploitation

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Analysis of Animal Remains from the John Chapman Village Site (11JD12): Further Insight on Apple River Mississippian Faunal Exploitation
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  Kuehn/Millhouse2010 IAS Analysis of Animal Remains from the John Chapman Village Site (11JD12): Further Insight on Apple Rier !ississippian Faunal "#ploitation BySteven R. Kuehn and Philip G. MillhouseIllinois State Archaeoloical Survey! "niversity o# Illinois at "r$ana%&ha'painIllinois Archaeoloical Survey Annual Meetin(cto$er )%*! 2010Illinois State "niversity! +or'al D$ %$& CI&" I% A%' C$%&"& I&*$+& ,"R!ISSI$% $F &*" A+&*$RS A$stract,A preli'inary report on the #aunal re'ains #ro' the 200- "I"& ecavations at ohn &hap'an illae 11123 is presented. 4hite%tailed deer and other lare 'a''al re'ains are a$undant! 5ith a variety o# s'aller 'a''al! 5ater#o5l! river #ish! turtle! and 'ussel re'ains also present in the asse'$lae. 6he &hap'an data are co'pared 5ith asse'$laes #ro' the near$y 7undy and 8red 9d5ards sites! as 5ell as #ro' other Mississippian settle'ents in the reion. Aspects o# the &hap'an lithic asse'$lae relevant to interpretation o# su$sistence practices are also addressed. 1  Kuehn/Millhouse2010 IAS Intro-u.tion : FI/+R"1 ; 6he Apple River Mississippian cultures o# north5estern Illinois have received increased attention in recent years. 6his locale is <ey #or understandin the Mississippiani=ation o# the upper Mississippi River valley. : FI/+R"2 ; Situated at the con#luence o# the Apple and Mississippi rivers! the ohn &hap'an! 7undy! and Mills settle'ents represent an early Mississippian period intrusion classi#ied as the Bennett  phase $y 6o' 9'erson. 6he ohn &hap'an villae covers over -0 hectares o# terrace land#or' at the north end o# the Apple River Mississippian settle'ents. : FI/+R"0 ; >a$itation de$ris is 5idespread! and a plo5ed plat#or' 'ound and a possi$le pla=a area are situated at the north end o# the site. 6he presence o# a palisade 5all at the northeastern end o# the site has $een deter'ined $ased on eophysical studies and the di##erential distri$ution o# arti#acts. In addition to the 'ound and palisade! house $asins!  pit #eatures! 'idden deposits! and patterned sur#ace arti#act scatters have $een identi#ied. : FI/+R" ; 6he cera'ic asse'$lae re#lects the 'ulticultural nature o# the &hap'an villae? 'ost o# the vessels are local variations o# Mississippian #or's 5ith so'e su$tle 4oodland in#luences. 7ocal copies o# non%local vessel types are present! as are :actual; non%local vessels o$tained throuh trade. ianostic lithics include Grant Side%+otched and other s'all trianular arro5 points! : FI/+R" ; and the u$i@uitous endscrapers that serve as a Mississippian hori=on 'ar<er in the upper Mississippi River valley.&hap'an! li<e the near$y >artley 8ort and 8red 9d5ards sites! is located in a tri$utary valley o# the Mississippi! relatively close to the 'ain :river; trench $ut hidden  $ehind a ride o# hih $lu##s. As noted $y Phil Millhouse and others! this settle'ent  pattern and the use o# palisades clearly de'onstrate that the inha$itants :o# these ne5 co''unities; 5ere certainly conscious o# the need #or security and protection. : FI/+R"3 ; 6here is 5idespread evidence #or increased reional con#lict throuhout the "pper Mid5est durin the late prehistoric period. At the sa'e ti'e! cera'ic studies de'onstrate a deree o# echane $et5een so'e :upper Mississippi valley; sites that on the sur#ace 'iht appear inconsistent 5ith the disruptive e##ects o# inter%reional hostilities. Ill touch on this point aain a $it later on. : FI/+R"4 ; In 200-! the "niversity o# Illinois conducted a controlled sur#ace collection and $loc< ecavations at the ohn &hap'an site! under the direction o# 6i' 2  Kuehn/Millhouse2010 IASPau<etat and supervised $y Phil Millhouse and e## Kruchten. 9leven structures!  pri'arily sinle%post su$terranean $uildins! and sity pit #eatures 5ere ecavated. : FI/+R"5 ; Phil is currently analy=in the cera'ic and lithic 'aterial as part o# his dissertation research. 9arly this year! I o##ered to analy=e the #aunal asse'$lae : that’s  just the great kind of guy I am ?; as part o# a separate research proect on Mississippian #aunal eploitation.6odays presentation is a preli'inary report on the &hap'an #aunal asse'$lae. etailed analysis o# the &hap'an #auna 5ill provide i'portant! additional insiht on Bennett phase #aunal eploitation! 5hich at present is <no5n #ro' only a li'ited data set #ro' a hand#ul o# sites. Faunal Analysis 6he &hap'an asse'$lae : FI/+R"6 ; contains -!*)1 pieces o# $one! 'ussel shell! and #ish scale. Approi'ately )2 percent are 'ini'ally identi#ia$le to the &lass level. Ma''al re'ains predo'inate! accountin #or over 2!C00 :+ISPD2C10; pieces o#  $one or rouhly CC percent o# the asse'$lae. 6he 'aority o# speci'ens are cateori=ed as lare%si=ed 'a''al or indeter'inate 'a''al. 4hite%tailed deer are the 'ost co''only identi#ied species 5ith 2EC speci'ens and a 'ini'u' o# 11 individuals. 9ssentially all $ody parts are represented! indicatin that entire #ield%dressed3 deer 5ere $rouht to the site #or processin. : FI/+R"17 ; Mandi$ular tooth 5ear patterns and the presence o# un#used lon $one epiphyses de'onstrate that the site inha$itants procured deer o# all aes. : FI/+R"11 ; +o #etal or #a5n $ones 5ere encountered! $ut such #inds are typically unco''on ecept in cases o# very #avora$le preservation. : FI/+R"12 ; In ter's o# #ood utility value 8ood "tility Inde or 8"I3! there is so'e pre#erence #or 'ediu' and hih%value deer $ody portions. As sho5n here! 'ediu' and hih value portions account #or FE.F percent! in contrast to the 0.F percent attri$uted to a Hstandard deer. Seventeen el< re'ains 5ere also identi#ied! : FI/+R"10 ; 5ith at least t5o individuals represented. In contrast to deer! ele'ent distri$ution is #airly restricted. 6en  pieces are distal li'$ or cranial $ones! 5ith a li'ited array o# verte$rae and upper li'$ -  Kuehn/Millhouse2010 IAS $ones roundin out the asse'$lae. Both adult and uvenile el< $ones are present. Another ten antler and tooth #ra'ents are classi#ied as either deer or el< :#a'ily &ervidae;. A variety o# other lare and s'all 'a''als 5ere reconi=ed. (ne thoracic verte$ra 5as identi#ia$le as $lac< $ear! #ro' a su$%adult individual. 8i#teen ele'ents #ro' 8eature *2 are #ro' a sinle adult do'estic do. +one o# the do re'ains ehi$it  $utcherin 'ar<s! and this 'ay represent a partial or distur$ed $urial. : FI/+R"1 ; All o# the do re'ains are #ro' the anterior portion o# the ani'al! and include 'andi$le and 'ailla #ra'ents! several cervical verte$rae! a thoracic verte$ra! and nu'erous ri$s. It is also possi$le that the do 5as <illed as part o# a ritual or #eastin activity. +u'erous other #ood re'ains 5ere recovered #ro' 8eature *2 includin deer! el<! $eaver! channel cat#ish! threeride! and indeter'inate turtle and $ird. 8eature *2 contained *) deer $ones al'ost -C percent o# all deer in the asse'$lae3! representin a 'ini'u' o# F individuals. 8our o# the 1E el< $ones 5ere #ound in 8eature *2! 5ith at least t5o individuals present. : FI/+R"1 ; In addition! the deer 8ood "tility values #or 8eature *2 are @uite distinct co'pared to the entire deer asse'$lae. As indicated here! the  percentae o# 'id and hih value ele'ents is approi'ately dou$le that o# a standard deer! and reater than the values deter'ined #or the &hap'an deer asse'$lae as a 5hole. :8urther ea'ination o# this #eature and its contents is necessary $e#ore #urther interpretation can $e o##ered.;Beaver! raccoon! 'us<rat! and #o s@uirrel are a'on the s'aller 'a''als identi#ied in the asse'$lae. Beaver re'ains are slihtly 'ore plenti#ul than the others! : FI/+R"13 ; 5ith siteen $ones and teeth recovered #ro' eiht di##erent #eatures! and at least t5o individuals represented. 65o incisor #ra'ents! one #ro' 8eature - and the other #ro' 8eature 11)! display 'odi#ication evidence indicatin they 5ere used as chisels or scrapin i'ple'ents. 8ish re'ains account #or 2F1 speci'ens. ust over 200 ele'ents! 'ostly verte$rae! ri$s! spines! and indistinct cranial #ra'ents are listed as indeter'inate #ish. : FI/+R"14 ; Speci#ic #ish reconi=ed in the asse'$lae include channel cat#ish! ar! northern pi<e! $u##alo! redhorse! lare'outh $ass! $lueill! and #resh5ater dru'. Many o# these species! such as channel cat#ish! pi<e! $u##alo! and dru'! are typically #ound in   Kuehn/Millhouse2010 IASlarer rivers. Redhorse suc<ers inha$it 'ediu'%si=ed and s'aller rivers! as 5ell as s'aller cree<s and strea's. Gars and lare'outh $ass occur in a variety o# 5ater $odies! includin la<es! strea's! cree<s! and lare rivers. Si'ilarly! $lueills are #ound in a diverse array o# a@uatic settins such as clear la<es! strea' and river pools! s5a'ps! and  ponds.65o #ish ele'ents display evidence o# 'odi#ication : FI/+R"15 ;. A pi<e  parasphenoid has $een s'oothed and polished! and a cranial piece #ro' an unidenti#ia$le #ish has $een si'ilarly 5or<ed to #or' a tapered! conical point 5ith 'oderate use%5ear  polish. Both arti#acts li<ely served as pins or a5ls. 6he &hap'an asse'$lae contained 1) $ird $ones! o# 5hich only seven 5ere identi#ia$le $eyond the class level. : FI/+R"16 ; A sternu' and three li'$ ele'ents 5ere identi#ied as &anada oose! and one 5in phalan is listed as a 'ediu'%si=ed duc<. A lare proi'al hu'erus #ra'ent co'pares #avora$ly 5ith s5an! pro$a$ly a tundra s5an. 6he other identi#ia$le ele'ent is a co'plete carpo'etacarpus #ro' a 'erlin or  pieon ha5<. : FI/+R"27 ; &ut 'ar<s 5ere o$served on a oose hu'erus and t5o lare%si=ed $ird lon $one #ra'ents. (ne lare $ird lon $one sha#t piece has a score cut at one end and appears to have $een split lonitudinally. Relatively #e5 turtle ele'ents are present. : FI/+R"21 ; Both so#tshell and snappin turtle 5ere identi#ied. So#tshells typically occur in river ha$itats! 5hile snappin turtles are #ound in a variety o# settins includin rivers. (# the nearly 200 #resh5ater 'ussel shell #ra'ents recovered! relatively #e5 5ere speci#ically identi#ia$le. 65enty%one threeride valves 5ere o$served! representin a 'ini'u' o# 12 individuals. In Illinois! threerides pri'arily occur in lare and s'all rivers! $ut can also $e #ound in la<es! ponds! and strea's. +one o# the turtle or 'ussel shells display processin 'ar<s or evidence o# 'odi#ication. : FI/+R"22 ; (ne 'arine shell! a 'odi#ied lihtnin 5hel<! 5as recovered #ro' 8eature -*. 6his s@uare #ra'ent is relatively lare! 'easurin 11 $y 11C ''! and is nearly 12 '' thic<. +u'erous #ine striations and 'oderate polish is visi$le on $oth sur#aces. 6he arti#act is un#inished! only rouhly 5or<ed until it could $e 'odi#ied #urther. It 'ost li<ely represents shell stoc< curated #or later processin. F
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